Maori filmmaker Barry Barclay advocates for what he calls ?fourth cinema.? He writes that ?through our stories, we locate ourselves, we link ourselves to the past, to the present and to the future.? Georgina Lightning?s Older than America offers a recent example of how indigenous filmmakers are lighting a new, sovereign path in the history of film. ?Fourth Cinema? represents a decisive turn away from stereotypical Hollywood warriors and new age shamans that have dominated films about Americans Indians through the 1970s. Since then, indigenous filmmakers have helped to change the conversation by challenging deeply-held, mainstream ?stories? about Native peoples.
How does Older than America, in the words of Film Studies scholar Beverly Singer, ?wipe the war paint off the lens?? Use Neil Diamond?s Reel Injun, Houston Wood?s ?Dimensions of Difference in Indigenous Film,? and Beverly Singer?s ?Thinking Indian Thoughts? to show how Older than America challenges stereotypical portrayals of American Indians. How is Lightning?s perspective different from that of non-Native filmmakers, from John Ford to Kevin Costner to Terence Malick? Your essay must include at least three different references to both the assigned readings in the unit as well as the readings from unit 1, on settler colonialism.
Women and men, the young and old, deal with the grave consequences of settler colonialism in Georgina Lightning?s Older than America, Sterlin Harjo?s Goodnight Irene, and Tanya Tagaq?s Tungijuq They explore how life within a settler-colonial state has deformed the relationship between genders and Native people of all ages. But amid these studies in victimization, each filmmaker, in his or her own way, emphasizes resilience through adversity. How do these filmmakers make a case for the survival of their cultures in spite of the structural violence that has become endemic among their people?
Please make clear which option you have chosen. Film reviews should be four double-spaced pages in length. Your review should contain a mix of popular and academic sources, including interviews, film reviews, and scholarly essays and/or books. Please use footnotes that conform to the Chicago Manual of Style. Older than America will be screened in class and it will also be on reserve, along with the other films screened during the unit, at UI?s Main Library.
This Film Anaysis has to be over the movie Older than America and I would like you too use four different sources from my class list.
Celluloid Warriors: From Stagecoach to The Searchers
Screening and Discussion, Neil Diamond, Reel Injun
Read and discuss: Houston Wood, ?Dimensions of Difference in Indigenous Film?
Understanding ?Fourth Cinema?
Read and discuss Barry Barclay, ?Celebrating Fourth Cinema,? Illusions (Winter 2003) 35: 7-11 & Beverly Singer, ?Thinking Indian Thoughts??
Clip/discussion of Shelley Niro, Tree and Isuma Productions, Tungijuq
Film Screening and Discussion, Goodnight Irene/Read: ??What?s wrong with here?? An Interview with Sterlin Harjo?
Replenishing the Earth
Chicago went from a small city to 1 million
? French traders and Indians
? After 1812 Chicago became a great city
? Chicago was like St Louis.
? It wasn?t about natural resources such as gold.
? First cities to have skyscrapers and transportation networks
? Wasn?t solely by the king
? Wealth doesn?t all go to England, build a home grown economy
? Colonization doesn?t end after 1776
? Extract natural resources and ship it back to Spain
? Manifest Destiny-
? Teleological- For or gained by god.
? Exceptionalism ? Anglophone world
? Domestic force in civilization
Why did the Anglophone world dominate?
? 128 countries tired up to Metropole in Europe
? Mercantilism- a closed trading system and not with other countries (Anst.)
? Trade and navigation act- Rules for trade. The English would only trade with London.
? Americans want free trade.
? Wheeler-Howard Act: Director of Indian affairs John, a bill that says that the tribal government have to be modeled after the United states government, such as Chief executive.
System in tribes
? Men would have to go live with their mother-in-laws if they married someone not like in other societies.
Aspects of Colonization
? Who has power against colonizers?
? Boarding schools
o 1978: Indian Child Welfare Act
Children were taken from their families to go to these schools. The state had the power to place the child where they wanted.
? Land Laws
? 1887-Dawes General Allotment Act- Every male of the household of 160 acres of land and the surplus land given to whites.
? Loss of language
How are native people deal with colonization?
Carlisle Indian School
? Treated with disrespect
? Hair cut and personal belongings taken away.
? Taking away their identity
? Detribalizing people
? Taking children from their home and changing who they were
? Indians forced into boarding schools
Would sometimes have their biological cord weaved into
American Colonization society
Liberia and Sierra leone- sent their by African americans
White Man?s Burden
? Begins with slavery
? Slave owners early on believed that they were doing a favor for the united states
? White people have self control, have civilization and black people don?t.
? Contrasting white society with indian ways
?I am going to Geneva?
? Four countries voted against Indians
? They all have large populations of Indians
? Settler colonists
? They cant aspect the different culture of indians
? Went to the League of Nations because they wanted someone else to symphaze with him.
? Broken treaties between Indians and british.
? Back stabbing due to their previous agreements
? The police are a colonial force should not be on their land
? Treating them very unfairly, on his territory
? Joseph Brant
? Colonial states 1907
Settle colon. Continues even today
Prompt for this unit
? Native response to their religions and other things
? Going to get international help
? Advocating for religion
? Boarding schools
? Took pictures of indian ways that were vanishing
1930s lost interest in Indians
1972 a clerk found items in the basement of pictures
Tribal Sovereignty and Federal Indian Policy
From cultural pluralism to Detribalization and Assimilation
? Federal indian policy has had an indian affects as a yo-yo
? U.S. government kept changing it mind. Going back and force to assimation and detribalization
Carisle indian school
? Operated from 1879-1918
? 12,000 children from 140 different tribes went to school there
? Wore uniforms
? Trained by captain Rachard Henry Pratt (By the military)
? Military men would be the superindentant of these indian schools
? ?kill the Indian, save the man?
? Through the military could be trained in industrial arts
? Created this idea living in two worlds
? Charles Eastman
o He converted to christanity
o Moved from a tp to a doctors office
? Going through Carisle is like going in as you and coming out a new person.
? You are both native and American when you come out
? Moved on as someone who would become
? Intertribal marriages and multicultural
? These boarding schools promotes integration as an native American identity
? Interesting fact: A lot of native people worked in boarding schools
? Teachers at carisle are considered judges debating a war partrating Indians
? They are having a debate again the treatment of Indians
1928: The Meriam Report
? The US made this report of the indian s in the united states
? It closed the period at this time
? It failed into 50 years of assimaltion
? Resulted in poverty and went backward
? Example: The poverty of the the indian s and their lack of adjustment to the dominant economic and social systmes produce the vicious cycle ordinarilary found among any people under such circustances. Because of interrelationships, causes cannot be differentiated effects
? In 1928, 45% of Indians made less than $200, and only 2% made more than $500
? What poverty looks like. Bullfrog: he had to get on his knees because he got frostbit and survived on chickens and a little garden
The yo-yo effect of federal Indian policy
The Dawes Act (1887) and Individualism
? The tribe got land and would get land if they had a child. White people got most of the land
? Reservations should be diminshed because reservations cannot assimilate
? Needed to be broken up, male head of household 160 acres, widows 80 acres, and others 40 acres
? ?Surplus land?
? Indian reservations were broken up and native families were spread all around
? Reservations as concentrations and a block to native people
? Take a census of the people in a tribe and what would be given to each tribe
Tribalism and the new deal 1933-1945
? Tribalism is good
o ?Rugged individualism must give way to social cooperation. The social element is dominant. An individual can only develop in organized society. If this means anything, it means that the social organization of the community must receive major attention?
? Changes economic effects and the war
John collier, commissioner of Indian affairs
? Most important U.S. government official
? The passion for the earth, the passion for life
? Stereotyping Indian peoples
? The tribes is important for non native people
? Not because the tribes themselves as a culture
? The way you can save tribes by constructing tribal culture
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
? The word sovereignty-your in charge of your own destiny
? Usually talking about nations
? Talking about tribes as nations
? Brings up treaties that are decades old
? Treaties are separated from the treaty of Chicago
? Domestic dependent nations- recognizes the limited sovereignty in the government
? Federal recognition- under the united states.
? One side fits all approach that all tribes have governments modeled after the united states constitution
? Disagreements between leaders
? Between 1825 and 1960, Rosier shows how the understanding of reservations changed.
o The Indian removal of 1830 shows in the map
o Most of the biggest reservations in the Midwest in Arizona
? Rosier- They are Ancestral Homelands-The changing in 1825 of tribes
? Where American natives could be free from white people and time to change and adapt to everything that was going on.
? Considered safe havens and over time became connetration camps
? How the world treats the people of color?
? The way America is perceived and Indian policy
? Native people were pushing back of these narrativations
Cold war conformity: While William Levitt built suburbs, senator Joseph McCarthy led a witch hunt against alleged communist sympathizers in government
? The Red menace is meant for Indians to get out of reservations into normal homes
? Native people on tribes became an example of communism
? Came from Wisconsin
? Tribes were socalists flourished and became bad again
? Military service helped to create what rosier calls hybrid patriotism
? Service fuel self-determination and the defense of reservations as ?nation spaces?
? Most Indians went into the military
? They were relocated and moved to a different place
? Ira haze, serviced in WWII his people were starving on their reservation
? The military made dams above their fields
House concurrent resolution 108/ ?termination?
? Between 1954 and 1972, 12,000 people were terminated as tribal citizens, and nearly 1.4 million acres of land was taken from native people
? Tribes were targeted by senators in each state and terminated by how much wealth you had.
? 1973: Ada deer: succeeded in restoring federal recognition of her people
? Their reservation is flooded
? Voluntary Relocation Program: in 1940, only 8% of native people lived in cities. By 1980, 52% did.
? They were paid to leave their reservations
? Relocation cities: Denver, Chicago, minnapolis and more.
o They took in native people in relocation
? The red power movement
o A lot these people who relocated fighted back against their poverty for rights.
What were the differences between these organizations?
The national congress of American Indians to the American Indian Chicago conferences
Clyde Warrior, the Red Power Movement and the various meanings of ?community? among modern tribes
Red Power Movement
? Common between all people: they were young, college students, and were struggling what it meant to be Indian in a veteran era.
? All these people credible pressure going to college and becoming a leader
? Young college students made up a Indian Policy
I decided to go to college because I needed to get a degree and getting a job. Nowadays you have to a degree to get a good job without it is very difficult
Oscar Wilde, the great American playwright, once wrote that ?The first duty in life is to assume a pose. What the second is, no one has yet discovered.?
? Clyde warrior argued that there are five types of Indians: the slob, the joker, the sellout, the ultra-pseudo Indian, and the angry naturalist. How did these types grow out of settler-colonialism in the united states?
? Clyde was the angry naturalist
What is the difference between your multi-layered identity and the identity options faced by Native American college students in the 1960s?
? For native kids they could be the only representatives on the college campus
? Only 35 students at iowa that were natives
Pan Indianism, nationalism, Ethnocentrism: Varieties of Indigeneity
? Robert Thomas (Cherokee) argued that pan-indianism amounted to ?the creation of a new identity, a new ethnic group, if you will, a new? nationality in America
? Clyde rejects pan Indianism
o We speak different languages, we have different social customs, we have different forms of tribal government, and this (makes it) very difficult to bring American Indian s together?
? Really upset with Indian Affairs and the war on poverty. He believed that American Indians ?are coerced and manipulated by the very system which excluded them.?
o People assume their way will help poverty
? The best means that can save people from poverty from their greens
? The war on poverty brought federal housed projects
? The best way is to disperse it and have it spread out
? Must be met to meet the needs of the 500 different tribes
?I am fed up with bureaucrats who try to pass off ?rules and regulations? for organizational programs that will bring progress..How about it? Let?s raise some hell!?
? Warrior was concerned with how federal Indian policy, designed by the bureau of Indian affairs, robbed tribal governments of
sovereignty. Limits on tribal rights since Oliphant v Suquamish-1978 Violence against Women Act-2013
? Sometimes non native would sexually assaulted a native women
Dollar General V. Missipssippi band of Choctaw Indians/ june 2016 and Tribal civil jurisdiction on Indian land
? Dollar General signed a leasing company and put it on Choctaw Indian reservation
? A native boy was sexually assaulted by the manager in the dollar general store
? Limited sovereignty
Unit 3: How does urbanization..
Leonard Peltier- arrested by the police
We Shall Remain: American experience
? A story of hope, courage
? History of American through native eyes
? Wounded knee
o 1973 a caravan went though the reservation with Indians
o Natives were practically invisible and through wounded knee they would get their revenge
o Went to Wounded Knee for a new beginning
o Went into a little store and destroyed everything inside
o Then went to a church and held hostage white people
? Reservation poverty
o Dick Wilson controlled the whole reservation
o Civil rights commission- to get rid of Wilson
o Tribal government tries to impeach him but failed at it.
? U.S. government was concerned with natives and would check on them regularly
Wounded Knee continued
? Their were cases were missing and being killed people Indians thought they were spies through the government
? A veteran who had been in wounded knee since the beginning dies
? May 6, was laided to rest
? May 8, the siege of the wounded knee was over
o Protesters made more plans
o Protestors left wounded knee, Dick Wilson took over when the government looked the other way
? Reign of terror- Wilson took force on the people who supported the wounded knee
? Coming out of wounded knee they knew they could make a difference
? The years following the wounded knee incident would build Indian schools to bring back tradition cultures
? Everyone has to do their part to stay Indian and teach their children who they are
? In 1980, the U.S. supreme court ruled that the federal government had taken Lakota land illegally and awarded $105 million in compensation
? You cant put a price tag on our sacred land
? Demanding their land back, the Lakota refused the payment
? The judgment has since grown to more than $830 million
? FBI was so upset because they were biased toward native Americans
o Made FBI look like bad guys
? Similar to the Civil Rights Movement
? The media had a big impact on Wounded knee if they weren?t their would be more blood shed
? You make an argument about those visual images that narrative the movie
? Dick Wilson had a impact as a big bad guy even though he wasn?t shown much in the film
o Sovereignty could be used as a weapon against people and hurt them
? Sovereignty can be against you and or for you
Need-Based Sovereignty: Is it a Double-Bind?
How is it that poverty became a marker of authenticity, and wealth became a sign of assimilation?
? American people connect wealthy tribes with assimilation
? 198, the supreme court ruled that states could not regulate economic development on Indian reservations in the California v. Cabazon band of mission Indians case
? Morongo Casino Resort Spa in Cabazon, California, January 2005. In October 1988, congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, paving the way for casinos
o Didn?t have a say in the case and then congress passed the Indian Gaming regulatory Act
o Native tribes could perform functions that no one else could
o The smart one developed a way to make money
? It is used to democrate these tribes
Jessica Cattelino defines tribal sovereignty as ?the authority and obligation of people within an indigenous polity to determine the extent and nature of their governing authority with regard to their territories and one another.?
? The memory of Osceola and Billy Bowlegs informs the contemporary Seminole defense of tribal sovereignty
? In 2007, the Seminole tribe of Florida purchased the hard rock cafes, Casinos, and hotels for $965 million dollars.
? The U.S. became so desperate that they sometimes made other tribes fight the Florida tribes.
? There were some tribes that successfully got out of the tribal act but they went through hell to get their
Remember that the Menominee Nation was terminated in 1954. They lost their federal recognition for twenty years.
? Blackjack had a timber industry and gave to other tribes
? They became so successful the government wanted to terminate this industry. The government was successful.
Wealth, cultural continuity and modernity: In the American mind, success is an unexpected place for tribal societies
? Native people have always be in local markets
? Linking tribes to other tribes in economic develop on their own terms.
? We want to think that we think they live off the land
? The Hard Rock Caf? is an example
Historican Brian Hosmer argues that ?creative engagement? in national and / or global economies should not be viewed as an affront to ?traditional? values. Provide evidence from ?Blackjack and Lumberjack in support of his argument?
Kenosha county executive Jim Kreuser said, ?Kenosha County will be fine with or without the casino, but there is no denying that the casino would have brought an even bigger economic boost to the Kenosha county community, the region and the state?
? Indian arts and crafts Act
? Ward Churchill
? Andrea Smith-Riverside professor
? Dartmouth- hired a person who claimed they were Indian but werent
? ?Wannabe? tribes
? David cornsilk
? Cherokee nation
? Indian child welfare act
? Descendency vs. blood quantum
? Indians always struggle with racism
? Struggling against racial identity
? In American culture we make assumptions of who Indians are
? 33 different ways the government decides who is who
? A blood quantum to go through your fathers line
? Forth cinema
? To understand the pre
? First silent film was called stage coach- was appicted Indians attacking a stage coach
? Was a leader of the Lakota tribe into a theater
? Native proformers were employed to reenact in the movies
? Were used for shooting off a horse
? Black and white films were very popular
? Native Americans became the good guys and put in films
Documentary: Reel Injun
? Its about how Hollywood portrays Indians in movies
o Still today the indian is considered a strong person
o The great plains which are always seen in movies
? Crazy horse was stabbed in the back
o A mystical warrior
o A symbol of spiritual awakening
Birth of the Hollywood Injun
? Starts with the first explorers
? They are like dinosaurs they don?t really existing
? The romance of the tragedy was why people were interested in Indians
? The Jarmausch ? Dad man (1995)
? Christ Eyre ?Skins, smoke signal, the silent enemy (1924)
o Stage Coach
o The searchers (1954)
? White people were portrayed as Indians in movies
? Pocohontas was the negative image of American desire
A good Injun.. a dead Injun
? John Trudell
? Iron eyes
o Had a secret identity
o His imigrants were from Italy
o He always loved Americans Indians and changed his identity to become an Indian
o The older he got after his stroke
o He believed he was an Indian and what he saw on the screen
o He raised his children through the Indian way of life
The groovy Injun
? In the 60s everything changed
? Hippy?s become Indians
? All people honored Indians through dressing like a native person
? A woman explains that someone on the street thought she was Indian and explained why she looked like a hippy
? Kindled the spirit of the people was diminishing
Reel Injun continued
? Used humor to deal with the way
? Movie: Billy joe
Houston Wood Essay main points
? Indigenous personnel
o Casting, pretendians, apprenticing
? Indigenous Production
o The Cultural protocols, reciprocity, who is the audience
? Indigenous content
o Languages- dances with wolves, how they use homeland as a character, ?living stones?/ Orality
? Eurocentric aesthetics
o Pocahontas (stereotype of Indian women)
o The stoic warrior- under his silent voice he found someone who was smart and could talk. The stereotypes of Indians not being smart
o Ownership of stereotype/ subverting stereotypes
What makes a movie an Indian movie?
? Natives were seen as savage, wild, mysterious indian
? The settler is not at the fault the native is always the aggressor
? Authorship- who is making the movie
? Audience-who is watching the movie
? Films are made for the need for the compentary audience in the audience
o All films tell us more that they were made that the time period it was made
What considates a native film?
? Getting funding for a native film
? A lot of film students don?t pay attention the low paided movies
*The fast runner
A indengious movie is considered that through how it was made, what made it the way it is.
? Path dependence
o Their isn?t enough evidence to back up his thesis statement about Shawnee women
? Corroboration- 1607-2007
? Salvage anthropology
? Pocahontas Myth
o John smith was the first to use destritions of the new world
o Travel narratives
? Foundational idea of indigenous women and American mind
o First form of literature
? Violence against indigenous women
? Confirmation bias
o Difficult to come
? Authorship matters
o They are all written by men
? How does the audience affect authorship?
? Do you work for your audience or yourself?
o The great tree of Peace
Read about Shelly Niro for Tuesday, Tree
? Mohawk (its their homeland)
? Representating an Indian surviving in the world around her
? Tourists in their own homeland
? In new york city
? Movie felt cold and eery
? What is the symbol of the tree?
The protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline at Oceti Sakowin (camp of the sacred stones) is the most significant event in American Indian history since the second Battle of Wounded Knee in 1973. It has galvanized a generation of native youth to continue the fight for sovereignty and environmental justice
? Since late October, police tactics at the Dakota Access Pipeline protest have dramatic
? He uses film as a way to use his way of activism
? When he cut up his card and couldn?t use the language
? Tracks the blood Quatrum of Indian blood
? Making Irene an allegory for Indian country
? Irene is an allegory for native culture
? The passing of culture the women going through the doors because she knows the culture will disappear soon
? When she looks at the little girl with the American toy, their culture is declining for each generation
? Soon native American culture will not exist it will be dead
? Argument: The culture will survive
Important: How indegious fourth film represents native Americans??
Don?t summary the movie but look at the characters and how indingious fourth film represents native Americans!
? Native American culture would honor nature
? Head bands represent each of their tribes
? Located on Found Du Reservation
? Casinos located on reservation
? The main women character is a teacher on the Indian reservation
? A man who is a geologist comes over to the reservation because he hears there is a earthquake that no one knows anything about
? The first Native American?s father is a medicine man
? Explores the ?culture killing? of the typical Native American experience in boarding schools in the 1900s
? Inter-social relationships between the Native American culture and the European culture
? The other main guy asks the geologist out for a beer-this could represent natives wanting to connect with European Americans
? This old man is going into the boarding school and hears noises
o It could be the voices of the dead who were in the boarding school
? A little girl wouldn?t behave and sing the song so the teacher/ nun took her to the bathroom and washed it out with soap
At the old Boarding School
? The security guard has disappeared and the geologist has come to find him
? His friend the police officer finds him in the basement
? Start talking about spirits.
? His friend killed himself
Visiting her mother
? She receives a vision of her mother being strapped to a bed and getting therapy shock
While on the road
? The woman sees all the children standing in the road of the boarding school
At the Hospital
? She just told her finance that she has visions and he told her to take her easy
? Her aunt and the priest are sending her to away to the psych hospital
? Beach?s dad
? From we shall remain
Talking to the father
? Save the Indian, save the man
? Taken from their mothers
? Take away all that defines who they were
Talking to the priest
? He is trying to hide what the nuns and the priests did to the children in that boarding school
Three main themes that occurred in the movie is
? Historical Trauma
? Limited Sovereignty
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