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International Trade and Finance Law

Problem-Question Scenario:
Assume Paragon (PG) and Srabon (SN) are Member States of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Both have been trading partners for a long time but there are no Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) between them. On 15 July 2015, PG enacted the ?Fair Trading and Tariffs Act? which introduced a new retail excise tax on certain luxury products, including cars, and Quantitative Restrictions (QRs) on the textiles. Consequently, a 30 percent tax has been imposed on all vehicles worth over US$ 30,000 while cars priced at $ 30,000 or under are taxed at 10 percent. Arguably, the 90 percent of the imported cars from SN fell into the high class classification, whereas only 10 percent of domestic cars (PG?s) fell into that high class classification. SN claimed, ?automobiles costing over $ 30,000 are ?like products? to automobiles costing less, since they have the same end use, basic physical characteristics, and tariff classification. ?PG disagrees with this approach, defending, ?the tax could be imposed on the basis of a threshold of $30,000, as long as the tax was not applied to stimulate direct protectionism for domestic production.?

SN further maintained that QRs are damaging (to its textile sector), discriminatory and inconsistent with the obligations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). QRs are discriminatory because Palvion and Domain, the two other Member States of the WTO, are not subjects to QRs. PG justified its action under Article XXIV of GATT as a PTA was concluded among PG, Pavlion and Domain but SN argued, their free trade policies have yet to cover ?substantially all the trade.?
To make matters worse, very recently the Director of Plant Quarantine of PG has adopted another policy for the importation of bananas from overseas. The policy provides, ?the importation of bananas can only be permitted subject to the strict adherence to import conditions and risk assessment methods as stipulated under its relevant laws and regulation?. Accordingly, the pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest practices for the production of bananas are required to be scientifically investigated by a group of experts, and the compliance of these import conditions and assessments will be monitored by PG through verification and audit of maturity testing and packaging practices. SN contends that PG?s measures and proceedings are discriminatory towards imports and more trade restrictive than required under The WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) to achieve its appropriate level of safety protection. SN now wishes to initiate legal proceedings under the WTO dispute settlement mechanism.

Answer the following:

1. Identify and briefly examine the major legal issues and trading principles involved in the above scenario from the perspective of International Trade Law. (500 Words)

2. What grounds does SN need to establish to have suitable remedies? Critically analyse these grounds and substantiate your argument by relying on relevant provisions of GATT, SPS and TBT Agreements and the decisions of the Appellate Body under the WTO dispute settlement system. (1000Words)

3. Evaluate the obligations of PG in the three instances as raised in the scenario, and advise PG of its immunities if any. (500Words)

General Comments:

1. This assignment comprises 3 Questions please answer all Questions. (No Introduction or Conclusion required)
2. Word limit: The total word limit is 2500 WORDS (excluding footnotes, but footnotes must not include any substantive content.

? Question 1 (500 words), Provide all issues and principles.

? Question 2 (1000words), analyse the grounds and substantiate your argument by relying on relevant provisions of GATT, SPS and TBT Agreements and the decisions of the Appellate Body under the WTO dispute settlement system.

? Question3 (500words). Evaluate the obligations of PG in the three instances as and advise PG of its immunities.

3. Formatting: All answers should be typed, using 2 line spacing, Times New Roman font, in 12-point font, Footnotes should be in 10-point font.

4. Referencing: Please use Australian Guide to Legal Citation (3rd ed, 2010) AGLC3. And Include a reference for each answer. I want to know from where you obtain the answer or which source you use to answer the question. Reference must conform to the Australian Guide to Legal Citation, 3rd Edition, (AGLC3) (can be downloaded at ( http://www.law.unimelb.edu.au/go/aglc).

5. Planning: Take care to read the questions carefully and answer what is asked.

6. The answer of each question must cover the arguments on the topic using primary and secondary scholarly sources such as ( text books- Journal articles). Also, use other related agreements, policies and INSTRUMENTS such as WTO website and Agreements.

7. Organization of the paper: Please use an appropriate headings and sub-headings if necessary.

8. Required and Recommended Reading Materials:
Find below some required and recommended readings materials. Please use these reading materials when it is relevant or appropriate. Also, use other reading materials beyond the materials provided. The sources must be scholarly sources.

? Islam, M R, International Trade Law of the WTO (Oxford University Press, 2006). See Chapter 2,3, 5 & 7.

? Judith L Goldstein et al, ?Institutions in International Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and the WTO on World Trade? ( 2007) 61.1 International Organization pp 37- 67.

? T. N. Srinivasan, ?Nondiscrimination in GATT/WTO : was there anything to begin with and is there anything left?? (2005) 4.1 World Trade Review pp 69?95.

? Anders, Gerhard, ‘Normativity of Numbers: World Bank and IMF Conditionality’ (2008) 31.2 PoLAR: The Political and Legal Anthropology Review pp 187-202.

? Ngaire Woods, ?The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers? (2007) 21.4 Ethics & International Affairs pp 485-487.

? The WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/spsagr_e.htm

? Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade https://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/17-tbt_e.htm

? European Communities ? Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones),https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds26_e.htm

? Thailand ? Customs and Fiscal Measures on Cigarettes from the Philippines
https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds371_e.htm

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