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Natural transformati… Show more Most have multiple correct

Natural transformati… Show more Most have multiple correct answers. :/ Question 1 Natural transformation Answer requires recombination of donor and recipient DNA occurs in most bacterial strains requires live donor and recipient cells requires competent recipient cells 1 points Question 2 in Bacillus subtilis Answer requires genes of the comG operon, which form a channel requires specific sequences in the donor DNA for binding to the cells competence is encoded by genes in multiple operons requires Com EA, EC, and FA for transport of DNA into the cell 1 points Question 3 in gram negative bacteria Answer uses ComA instead of ComEC in the cytoplasmic membrane the peptidoglycan cell wall layer blocks DNA transfer binds ssDNA require an outer membrane, secretin protein 1 points Question 4 Competence systems Answer include a nuclease typically include pili that have been shown to bind DNA on the cell surface are generally similar to type IV secretion systems often include a small molecule such as a peptide that helps to signal cell density 1 points Question 5 DNA for transformation Answer requires double-strand breaks in the DNA entering the cell can enter as a covalently closed plasmid typically enters the cells in lengths greater than 8 kb is sensitive to degradation by extracellular nucleases in the environment 1 points Question 6 Regulation of competence in B. subtilis Answer requires the phosphorylation of ComA via ComP-P, which is itself phosphorylated in the membrane ComA-P represses transcription of several competence genes depends on cell density which is detected via a pheromone excreted from the cells which is a lipid made from ComX depends on CSF, which is a processed peptide made from PhrC that exits the cell and then reenters using the permease, Spo0K 1 points Question 7 Efficiency of transformation can be determined using radiolabeled DNA. In this type of experiment Answer DNase is used to degrade any DNA that does not enter the cell the extracellular labeled DNA is counted on a filter to determine how much DNA entered the cell the intracellular labeled DNA is counted on a filter to determine how much DNA entered the cell intracellular nucleases are used to degrade the DNA after it enters the cell 1 points Question 8 In S. pneumoniae Answer transformation depends on competence factors, including an extracellular peptide ssDNA enters the cell and is protected by ssDNA-binding proteins inside the recipient cell, the ssDNA is replicated to make dsDNA, which then recombines with the homologous DNA in the chromosome depends on a two-component signal transduction system ComD and ComE • Show less

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