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CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF MA -ORI LEARNERS TATAIAKO
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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MANAGING FOR SUCCESS KA HIKITIA MA -ORI ACHIEVING EDUCATION SUCCESS AS MA -ORI
KA HIKITIA Managing for Success
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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How much do the teachers know of their students? history, tikanga, and worldview ? and how is this reflected in the classroom curriculum and environment? What aspirations do wh?nau and iwi have for their young people? How visible and involved are wh?nau and iwi in the teaching and learning culture of the school or early childhood education service?
These are the kind of questions that T?taiako will challenge teachers, teacher educators, early childhood education services, and schools to answer. I strongly endorse T?taiako for everyone involved in education.
Ka taea e t?tou te taumata e tika ana m? ? t?tou tamariki kia piki. E kore t?tou e tuohu!
Kia kaha, kia ora.
Hon Dr Pita Sharples Associate Minister of Education
FOREWORD
E ng? iwi, t?n? koutou katoa.
E ng? tohunga, ng? pukenga, ng? kaiako i ng? kura o te motu, t?n? koutou.
E ai ki te korero: ?Whaia te iti kahurangi; ki te tuohu koe, me he maunga teitei?.
Pursue the highest ideals; if you must submit, let it be to a lofty mountain.
All of us ? families, communities, teachers ? want our children to reach their full potential. This resource maps out a path to the pinnacle of excellence.
New Zealand?s education system is among the best in the world. We know that our top-achieving students rank among the highest in the OECD.
We also know that for too many generations, a significant proportion of M?ori students have not achieved well; have left school young, without worthwhile qualifications, and without any real options for work.
This Government is committed to lifting achievement for all our students. To fulfil this commitment, and to ensure New Zealand?s future economic prosperity and social harmony, we must make the education system work better for M?ori.
We are shifting the emphasis away from M?ori students being responsible for under-achieving in our compulsory education programmes, to look at how education can be delivered in the context of the vibrant contemporary M?ori values and norms, reflecting the cultural milieu in which M?ori students live.
Genuine, productive relationships among teachers and their M?ori students, wh?nau, iwi and wider communities are vital foundations for effective teaching and learning. This is the focus of T?taiako: Cultural Competencies for Teachers of M?ori Learners.
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T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
T?taiako: Cultural Competencies for Teachers of M?ori Learners is about teachers? relationships and engagement with M?ori learners and with their wh?nau and iwi. Designed for teachers in early childhood education (ECE) services and in primary and secondary schools, it will support your work to personalise learning for and with M?ori learners, to ensure they enjoy education success as M?ori. Ka Hikitia ? Managing for Success, the Government?s strategy for M?ori achieving education success as M?ori, emphasises the importance of the teacher-learner relationship: Evidence shows that high-quality teaching is the most important influence the education system can have on high-quality outcomes for students with diverse learning needs. Evidence also shows that effective teaching and learning depends on the relationship between teachers and students and students? active engagement.1 Ka Hikitia also stresses the importance of identity, language and culture ? teachers knowing where their students come from, and building on what students bring with them; and on productive partnerships among teachers, M?ori learners, wh?nau, and iwi. Parents and wh?nau play a critical role in supporting their children?s learning right from the start. Evidence shows that learning outcomes are enhanced when parental involvement in school is sustained and focused on learning activities. Identity, language and culture count ? knowing where students come from and building on what students bring with them. Productive Partnerships ? M?ori students, wh?nau and educators sharing knowledge and expertise with each other to produce better outcomes2. These principles form the basis of T?taiako. The competencies are about knowing, respecting, and working with M?ori learners and their wh?nau and iwi so their worldview, aspirations, and knowledge are an integral part of teaching and learning, and of the culture of the school or ECE service. The competencies Each competency describes related behaviours for teachers at different stages of their teaching career, and what the results could look like for learners and their wh?nau. Teachers will need to ensure they have the competencies of all stages up to their current level. The behavioural indicators listed are not exhaustive and can be developed
1 Ka Hikitia ? Managing for Success: The M?ori Education Strategy 2008 ? 2012. http://www.minedu.govt.nz/theMinistry/PolicyAndStrategy/KaHikitia.aspx 2 Ibid.
further by schools/ECE services together with iwi to include expectations relevant to the local context. The competencies are: ? W?nanga: participating with learners and communities in robust dialogue for the benefit of M?ori learners? achievement. ? Whanaungatanga: actively engaging in respectful working relationships with M?ori learners, parents and wh?nau, hap?, iwi and the M?ori community. ? Manaakitanga: showing integrity, sincerity and respect towards M?ori beliefs, language and culture. ? Tangata Whenuatanga: affirming M?ori learners as M?ori. Providing contexts for learning where the language, identity and culture of M?ori learners and their wh?nau is affirmed. ? Ako: taking responsibility for their own learning and that of M?ori learners. While the competencies are not formal standards or criteria, they are linked to the Graduating Teacher Standards and Registered Teacher Criteria developed by the New Zealand Teachers Council. Cultural locatedness Cultural locatedness refers to the focus of the competencies at different stages of a teaching career. For people entering initial teacher education, and for graduating teachers, the focus is m?rama: developing an understanding of one?s own identity, language and culture; developing an understanding of the relevance of culture in New Zealand education; and developing an understanding of and openness to M?ori knowledge and expertise. For registered teachers, the focus is m?hio: knowing how to validate and affirm M?ori and iwi culture, and applying that knowledge. For school and ECE service leaders, the focus is m?tau: being able to lead and engage others in validating and affirming M?ori and iwi culture. Using the competencies T?taiako is an important resource for teachers, boards of trustees, educational leaders, and providers of professional learning development and initial teacher education. The Teachers Council has produced guidance for schools and early childhood centres on using the competencies. You?ll find it at www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz. For an online version of this booklet, visit www.minedu.govt.nz/tataiako.
CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF MA -ORI LEARNERS TA -TAIAKO:
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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M?ori learners achieving education success as M?ori
Ako Practice in the classroom and beyond
W?nanga Communication, problem solving, innovation
Manaakitanga Values ? integrity, trust, sincerity, equity
Tangata Whenuatanga Place-based, socio-cultural awareness and knowledge
Whanaungatanga Relationships (students, school-wide, community) with high expectations
TA -TAIAKO COMPETENCIES
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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WANANGA Participates with learners and communities in robust dialogue for the benefit of Maori learners? achievement.
Wananga has links to Graduating Teacher Standards 5, 6, 7
Wananga has links to Registered Teacher Criteria 5, 11, 12
ENTRY TO ITEGRADUATING TEACHERREGISTERED TEACHERLEADER
BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS
? Demonstrates an open mind to explore di?ering views and reflect on own beliefs and values. ? Shows an appreciation that views which di?er from their own may have validity.
? Knows how to support e?ective teaching interactions, co-construction and co-operative learner-focussed activities. ? Understands and can describe the purpose and process of wananga and its application in a classroom and community context. ? Has the skills to utilise wananga in the classroom/ECE service and in interactions with parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and the community. ? Understands that Maori parents, whanau, hapu and iwi have expertise in their own right.
? Uses specific strategies and protocols for e?ective communication with whanau, hapu, iwi and the community. ? Communicates e?ectively with Maori parents and whanau about their child?s learning. ? Engages with Maori learners, whanau, hapu, iwi and Maori communities in open dialogue about teaching and learning. ? Acknowledges and accesses the expertise that Maori parents, whanau, hapu and iwi o?er.
? Actively encourages, supports, and where appropriate challenges Maori parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and community to determine how they wish to engage about important matters at the school/ECE service. ? Actively and routinely supports and leads sta? to engage e?ectively and appropriately with Maori parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and the Maori community. ? Actively seeks out, values and responds to the views of Maori parents, whanau, hapu, and the Maori community. ? Engages the expertise of parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and Maori communities in the school/ECE service for the benefit of Maori learners.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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OUTCOMES
My teacher:
? talks with me about my learning
? wants my parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and the community to have a say and makes it possible
? listens to my views and those of my peers
? shares their views with me and my peers
? cares about what we think
? shares good news (and the not so good) with my parents and whanau
? hears what my parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and community say, expect and want.
Outcomes: examples of whanau voice (MGF* 3.4) Outcomes: examples of learner voice
? Maori parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and Maori communities are key stakeholders in the school/ECE service. ? Our preferences are determining the kind of engagement we have with the school/ECE service. ? We can engage with sta? and the school/centre on our own terms and in our own way. ? As parents and whanau, we are well-informed, feel confident and are part of what our children are doing at school. ? Our knowledge and perspectives are well respected, highly valued and fully integrated in ways that benefit our children?s education. ? I have good discussions with the teachers about my child?s learning.
* The Measurable Gains Framework (MGF) assesses progress towards achieving the goals and actions of Ka Hikitia.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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WHANAUNGATANGA Actively engages in respectful working relationships with Maori learners, parents and whanau, hapu, iwi and the Maori community.
Whanaungatanga links to Graduating Teacher Standard 6
Whanaungatanga links to Registered Teacher Criteria 1
ENTRY TO ITEGRADUATING TEACHERREGISTERED TEACHERLEADER
BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS
? Can describe from their own experience how identity, language and culture impact on relationships.
? Understands the impact of their own identity, language and culture (cultural locatedness) on relationships. ? Demonstrates a willingness to engage with iwi and Maori communities. ? Knows the importance and impact of teacher-learner relationships and the school/ECE service-home partnership on Maori learner achievement. ? Recognises the need to have learning relationships with Maori learners, whanau, hapu, iwi and communities. ? Has the tools and strategies to develop successful relationships with Maori learners, whanau, hapu, iwi and communities.
? Has respectful working relationships with Maori learners and their whanau, hapu and iwi which enhance Maori learner achievement. ? Actively seeks ways to work with whanau to maximise Maori learner success.
? Is visible, welcoming and accessible to Maori parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and the Maori community. ? Actively builds and maintains respectful working relationships with Maori learners, their parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and communities which enable Maori to participate in important decisions about their children?s learning. ? Demonstrates an appreciation of how whanau and iwi operate. ? Ensures that the school/ECE service, teachers and whanau work together to maximise Maori learner success.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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OUTCOMES
My teacher:
? I get on well with my teacher/s.
? My teacher knows my parents and whanau.
? My teacher treats me and my whanau with respect.
? My parents, whanau and community feel welcome at the school.
? My teachers are visible in the local Maori community/at local Maori community events.
? My teacher knows who my mates are.
? I know my teacher as a person.
Outcomes: examples of whanau voice (MGF 3.2) Outcomes: examples of learner voice
? We feel welcome and included. ? We have great relationships with the school/ECE service. ? All of my interactions with the school have been good (even when there has been an issue, or I have had concerns) ? We have positive and productive relationships with teachers and leaders of the school/ECE service. ? I know my children?s teachers and the principal and they know who I am.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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MANAAKITANGA Demonstrates integrity, sincerity and respect towards Maori beliefs, language and culture.
Manaakitanga links to Graduating Teacher Standards 3, 4, 6
Manaakitanga links to Registered Teacher Criteria 2, 7
ENTRY TO ITEGRADUATING TEACHERREGISTERED TEACHERLEADER
BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS
? Values cultural di?erence. ? Demonstrates an understanding of core Maori values such as: manaakitanga, mana whenua, rangatiratanga. ? Shows respect for Maori cultural perspectives and sees the value of Maori culture for New Zealand society. ? Is prepared to be challenged, and contribute to discussions about beliefs, attitudes and values. ? Has knowledge of the Treaty of Waitangi and its implications for New Zealand society.
? Recognises own cultural beliefs and values. ? Demonstrates respect for hapu, iwi and Maori culture in curriculum design and delivery processes. ? Can explain the importance of acknowledging iwi and Maori values in school/ ECE service and classroom practices. ? Understands that each Maori learner is part of a wider whanau and what that might mean for a teacher. ? Understands the Treaty of Waitangi and its implications for teaching in New Zealand.
? Displays respect, integrity and sincerity when engaging with Maori learners, whanau, hapu, iwi and communities. ? Demonstrably cares about Maori learners, what they think and why. ? Displays respect for the local Maori culture (nga tikanga- a-iwi) in engaging with Maori learners, their parents whanau, hapu, iwi and communities. ? Incorporates Maori culture (including tikanga-a-iwi) in curriculum delivery and design processes. ? Can describe how the Treaty of Waitangi influences their practice as a teacher in the New Zealand educational setting.
? Actively acknowledges and follows appropriate protocols when engaging with Maori parents, whanau, hapu, iwi and communities. ? Communications with Maori learners are demonstrably underpinned by cross-cultural values of integrity and sincerity. ? Understands local tikanga and Maori culture su?ciently to be able to respond appropriately to Maori learners, their parents, whanau, hapu and Maori community about what happens at the school/ ECE service. ? Leads and supports sta? to provide a respectful and caring environment to enable Maori achievement. ? Actively acknowledges and acts upon the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi for themselves as a leader and their school/ECE service.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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OUTCOMES
My teacher:
? respects my culture
? treats me and my peers fairly and with respect
? pronounces Maori names well, if not perfectly
? knows about the local tikanga
? understands my sense of humour
? uses te reo Maori in class and encourages us to speak Maori if we want.
Outcomes: examples of whanau voice (MGF 3.2) Outcomes: examples of learner voice
? The school/ECE service respects and embraces Maori language and culture. ? Being Maori is highly valued at this school/ECE service. ? Our perspectives and our values are respected. ? The teachers care about our children and always talk positively about them.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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TANGATA WHENUATANGA Affirms Maori learners as Maori ? provides contexts for learning where the identity, language and culture (cultural locatedness) of Maori learners and their whanau is affirmed.
Tangata Whenuatanga links to Graduating Teacher Standards 1, 3
Tangata Whenuatanga links to Registered Teacher Criteria 3, 9, 10
ENTRY TO ITEGRADUATING TEACHERREGISTERED TEACHERLEADER
BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS
? Knows about where they are from and how that informs and impacts on their own culture, values and beliefs.
? Can explain the importance of local history in the New Zealand school setting and what this means for them. ? Can explain how knowledge of local context and local iwi and community is important in supporting Maori learners to achieve in and through education. ? Has the tools and skills to engage local knowledge and history (or the people who hold that knowledge) to support teaching and learning programmes. ? Understands that Maori learners bring rich cultural capital to the learning environment and how to maximise that to enhance learning potential.
? Harnesses the rich cultural capital which Maori learners bring to the classroom by providing culturally responsive and engaging contexts for learning. ? Actively facilitates the participation of whanau and people with the knowledge of local context, tikanga, history, and language to support classroom teaching and learning programmes. ? Consciously uses and actively encourages the use of local Maori contexts (such as whakapapa, environment, tikanga, language, history, place, economy, politics, local icons, geography) to support Maori learners? learning.
? Consciously provides resources and sets expectations that sta? will engage with and learn about the local tikanga, environment, and community, and their inter-related history. ? Understands and can explain the e?ect of the local history on local iwi, whanau, hapu, Maori community, Maori learners, the environment, and the school/ECE service. ? Actively acknowledges Maori parents, hapu, iwi and the Maori community as key stakeholders in the school/ECE service. ? Ensures that teachers know how to acknowledge and utilise the cultural capital which Maori learners bring to the classroom in order to maximise learner success.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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OUTCOMES
It feels good to be Maori at this school and my teacher:
? knows how to involve me and what I bring to my learning
? is interested in what I know already
? knows how to make things we learn relevant to us
? lets us learn about things we are interested in
? knows about this area, the environment, the local marae, hapu and whanau and how I fit in, in relation to all
? encourages us to explore and talk about what happens around here, at the marae and with my whanau
? knows me as an individual, and how I am part of my whanau, hapu, iwi and community.
Outcomes: examples of whanau voice (MGF 3.2 and 3.4): Outcomes: examples of learner voice
? The school/ECE service is like an extension of our community ? you can tell it is a local school. ? Iwi and Maori language and culture are increasingly being included in the curriculum and school/ECE service activities. ? We are involved in the classroom programme. ? The local school curriculum includes a lot of local tikanga, language and culture. ? We feel good about the way the school includes te reo Maori and tikanga in the curriculum. ? They do a good job at linking what they teach to things our kids can relate to.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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AKO Takes responsibility for their own learning and that of Maori learners.
Ako links to Graduating Teacher Standards 2, 4, 5, 7
Ako links to Registered Teacher Criteria 4, 6, 8, 12
ENTRY TO ITEGRADUATING TEACHERREGISTERED TEACHERLEADER
BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS
? Recognises the need to raise Maori learner academic achievement levels. ? Is willing to learn about the importance of identity, language and culture (cultural locatedness) for themselves and others. ? Can explain their understanding of lifelong learning and what it means for them. ? Positions themselves as a learner.
? Is able to articulate a teaching philosophy that reflects their commitment to, and high expectations of Maori learners achieving as Maori. ? Understands that Maori learners come with prior knowledge underpinned by identity, language, and culture. ? Has a wide range of skills, strategies, and tools to actively facilitate successful learning for every Maori learner. ? Is open to ongoing learning and understands their own learning-style preferences.
? Consciously plans and uses pedagogy that engages Maori learners and caters for their needs. ? Plans and implements programmes of learning which accelerate the progress of each Maori learner identified as achieving below or well below expected achievement levels. ? Actively engages Maori learners and whanau in the learning (partnership) through regular, purposeful feedback and constructive feed-forward. ? Validates the prior knowledge that Maori learners bring to their learning. ? Maintains high expectations of Maori learners succeeding, as Maori. ? Takes responsibility for their own development about Maori learner achievement. ? Ensures congruency between learning at home and at school.
? Actively displays a genuine commitment to Maori learner success. ? Consciously sets goals, monitors, and strategically plans for higher achievement levels of Maori learners. ? Actively prioritises Maori learner achievement, including accelerated progress of Maori learners achieving below or well below expected achievement levels. ? Implements a teacher appraisal system that specifically includes Maori learner achievement as a focus. ? Provides and supports ongoing professional learning and development for sta? that strengthens the school/ECE service?s ability to raise Maori learner achievement. ? Actively ensures that Maori learners have access to high quality culturally relevant programmes and services. ? Personally committed to, and actively works on their own professional learning and development with regard to Maori learner achievement.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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OUTCOMES
My teacher:
? lets me and my peers know when we?re doing well
? never gives up on us
? knows what works for me and my learning
? asks us what we know
? shows me how to learn
? expects every one of us to do our best all the time
? believes I can succeed
? tells me that we are both responsible for how well I do ? we both get to celebrate when I do well, or have to try harder if I don?t!
? seems to enjoy learning from us too.
Outcomes: examples of whanau voice (MGF 3.1 and 3.2): Outcomes: examples of learner voice
? Every one of our children is achieving well at this school/ECE service. ? As Maori parents and whanau, we talk with teachers regularly about our children?s learning. ? The teachers are all committed to ensuring our children do well. ? We determine the type of information we want to receive about our children?s learning and also how that information is provided. ? As part of the Maori community, we can make decisions about the teaching and learning programme at the school/ECE service. ? We know what our children are learning at school and can support them at home.
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T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
M?ori learners achieving education success as M?ori
Ako Practice in the classroom and beyond Ako – reciprocal teaching/learning; parent, wh?nau, hap?, learner, teacher (Ka Hikitia) Effective learning by M?ori learners Effective pedagogy Effective curriculum for M?ori learners GTS 2, 4, 5, 7 RTC 4, 6, 8, 12
W?nanga Communication, problem solving, innovation Students, wh?nau, and iwi engaging in discussions and robust debate Effective learning and teaching interactions with students, wh?nau, and iwi Reporting and co-constructing learning goals GTS 5, 6, 7 RTC 5, 11, 12
Manaakitanga Values – integrity, trust, sincerity, equity Effective Teaching Profile (Te Kotahitanga) Caring for M?ori learners as culturally-located beings Treating M?ori students, wh?nau, and iwi equitably with sincerity and integrity GTS 3, 4, 6 RTC 2, 7
Tangata Whenuatanga Place-based, socio-cultural awareness and knowledge Effective language and cultural practices for M?ori learners Te Reo M?ori/reo ?-iwi Tikanga Maori/tikanga-?-iwi Place-based education All learning and interaction occurs within a cultural context Knowledge of whakapapa – knowing who children are, where they are from and who they belong to Identity, language, culture GTS 1, 3 RTC 3, 9, 10
Whanaungatanga Relationships (students, school-wide, community) with high expectations Effective relationships with M?ori learners Effective parent, wh?nau and iwi Keeping connected Productive partnerships (Ka Hikitia) GTS 6 RTC 1
TA -TAIAKO SUMMARY
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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Each of the T?taiako competencies has links with one or more of the New Zealand Teachers Council?s Graduating Teacher Standards. The key links are set out below.
Professional Knowledge
Standard One: Graduating Teachers know what to teach
Key competency: Tangata Whenuatanga
a. have content knowledge appropriate to the learners and learning areas of their programme.
b. have pedagogical content knowledge appropriate to the learners and learning areas of their programme.
c. have knowledge of the relevant curriculum documents of Aotearoa New Zealand.
d. have content and pedagogical content knowledge for supporting English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners to succeed in the curriculum.
Standard Two: Graduating Teachers know about learners and how they learn
Key competency: Ako
a. have knowledge of a range of relevant theories and research about pedagogy, human development and learning.
b. have knowledge of a range of relevant theories, principles and purposes of assessment and evaluation.
c. know how to develop metacognitive strategies of diverse learners.
d. know how to select curriculum content appropriate to the learners and the learning context.
Standard Three: Graduating Teachers understand how contextual factors influence teaching and learning
Key competencies: Manaakitanga, Tangata Whenuatanga
a. have an understanding of the complex influences that personal, social, and cultural factors may have on teachers and learners.
b. have knowledge of tikanga and te reo M?ori to work effectively within the bicultural contexts of Aotearoa New Zealand.
c. have an understanding of education within the bicultural, multicultural, social, political, economic and historical contexts of Aotearoa New Zealand.
Professional Practice
Standard Four: Graduating Teachers use professional knowledge to plan for a safe, high quality teaching and learning environment
Key competencies: Manaakitanga, Ako
a. draw upon content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge when planning, teaching and evaluating.
b. use and sequence a range of learning experiences to influence and promote learner achievement.
c. demonstrate high expectations of all learners, focus on learning and recognise and value diversity.
d. demonstrate proficiency in oral and written language (M?ori and/or English), in numeracy and in ICT relevant to their professional role.
e. use te reo M?ori me ng? tikanga-?-iwi appropriately in their practice.
f. demonstrate commitment to and strategies for promoting and nurturing the physical and emotional safety of learners.
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LINKS WITH TA -TAIAKO GRADUATING TEACHER STANDARDS:
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T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
Standard Five: Graduating Teachers use evidence to promote learning
Key competencies: W?nanga, Ako
a. systematically and critically engage with evidence to reflect on and refine their practice.
b. gather, analyse and use assessment information to improve learning and inform planning.
c. know how to communicate assessment information appropriately to learners, their parents/caregivers and staff.
Professional Values & Relationships
Standard Six: Graduating Teachers develop positive relationships with learners and the members of learning communities
Key competencies:W?nanga, Whanaungatanga, Manaakitanga
a. recognise how differing values and beliefs may impact on learners and their learning.
b. have the knowledge and dispositions to work effectively with colleagues, parents/caregivers, families/wh?nau and communities.
c. build effective relationships with their learners.
e. promote a learning culture which engages diverse learners effectively.
f. demonstrate respect for te reo M?ori me ng? tikanga-a- iwi in their practice.
Standard Seven: Graduating Teachers are committed members of the profession
Key competencies: W?nanga, Ako
a. uphold the New Zealand Teachers Council Code of Ethics/Ng? Tikanga Matatika.
b. have knowledge and understanding of the ethical, professional and legal responsibilities of teachers.
c. work co-operatively with those who share responsibility for the learning and wellbeing of learners.
e. are able to articulate and justify an emerging personal, professional philosophy of teaching and learning.
T?TAIAKO: CULTURAL COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS OF M?ORI LEARNERS
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The T?taiako competencies have links to the New Zealand Teachers Council?s Registered Teacher Criteria. The key links are set out below.
Professional relationships and professional values
1. establish and maintain effective professional relationships focused on the learning and well-being of all ?konga Key competency: Whanaungatanga
2. demonstrate commitment to promoting the well-being of all ?konga Key competency: Manaakitanga
3. demonstrate commitment to bicultural partnership in Aotearoa New Zealand Key competency: Tangata Whenuatanga
4. demonstrate commitment to ongoing professional learning and development of personal professional practice Key competency: Ako
5. show leadership that contributes to effective teaching and learning Key competency: W?nanga
Professional knowledge in practice
6. conceptualise, plan and implement an appropriate learning programme Key competency: Ako
7. promote a collaborative, inclusive and supportive learning environment Key competency: Manaakitanga
8. demonstrate in practice their knowledge and understanding of how ?konga learn Key competency: Ako
9. respond effectively to the diverse language and cultural experiences, and the varied strengths, interests and needs of individuals and groups of ?konga Key competency: Tangata Whenuatanga
10. work effectively within the bicultural context of Aotearoa New Zealand Key competency: Tangata Whenuatanga
11. analyse and appropriately use assessment information, which has been gathered formally and informally Key competency: W?nanga
12. use critical inquiry and problem-solving effectively in their professional practice Key competency: W?nanga, Ako
LINKS WITH TA -TAIAKO REGISTERED TEACHER CRITERIA:
? Crown copyright, 2011 All rights reserved, enquiries should be made to the publisher. Published August 2011 ISBN 978-0-478-38600-4 (print) ISBN 978-0-478-38601-1 (web)
Ministry of Education 45-47 Pipitea Street PO Box 1666 Thorndon Wellington 6140 Email education.workforce@minedu.govt.nz Phone +64 4 463 8000 www.minedu.govt.nz

Write an essay that discusses this document (attached) and what does ?Tataiako? mean for early childhood teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand.

Ensure that you cover each of the following in your essay:

1. The main aim of Tataiako

2. An explanation of what ?Maori learners achieving education success as Maori? means

3. An outline of the five areas of cultural competence contained in Tataiako

The competencies are:
? W?nanga: participating with learners and communities in robust dialogue for the benefit of M?ori learners? achievement.
? Whanaungatanga: actively engaging in respectful working relationships with M?ori learners, parents and wh?nau, hap?, iwi and the M?ori community.
? Manaakitanga: showing integrity, sincerity and respect towards M?ori beliefs, language and culture.
? Tangata Whenuatanga: affirming M?ori learners as M?ori. Providing contexts for learning where the language, identity and culture of M?ori learners and their wh?nau is affirmed.
? Ako: taking responsibility for their own learning and that of M?ori learners. While the competencies are not formal standards or criteria,

4. How these competencies might be enacted in an early childhood setting, for each of the five areas.

5. Consideration of how use of te reo me nga tikanga Maori supports the cultural competencies outlined in Tataiako

6. Links between Tataiako and the strands and principles of Te Whariki.

7. How Tataiako support the principles inherent in Te Tiriti o Waitangi /The Treaty of Waitangi.

In your discussion, ensure that you:

1. Include specific examples that illustrate how the competencies outlined in
Tataiako might look in early childhood teaching practice (at least one for each of the five areas)

2. Include reference to relevant literature, course readings, and set texts
3. Use formal essay structure

(2500 words)

References List (Please use the following references)

Ministry of Education (2011). Tataiako: Cultural Competencies of Teachers of Maori Learners. Retrieved from http://educationcouncil.org.nz/sites/defaut/files/Tataiako.pdf.

Manning, R. (2012). Place ? based education: Helping early childhood teachers give meaningful effect to the tangata whenuatanga competency of Tataiako and the principles of Te Whariki. In D. Gordon-Burns, A. Gunn, K. Purdue & N. Surtees (Eds.), Te Aoturoa Tataki: Perspectives on inclusion, social justice and equity from Aotearoa New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Reading 1.1 Mana Maori Motuhake
Walker, R. (2004). Mana Maori motuhake. In Ka whawhai tonu matou ? Struggle without end (pp. 186?219). Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin Books.
Copyright ? Ranginui Walker.

Reading 1.2 All About the Treaty
State Services Commission. (2005). All about the Treaty. Retrieved from http://www. nzhistory.net.nz/files/documents/All_about_the_Treaty.pdf June 23, 2011.
Copyright ? State Services Commision.

Reading 1.3 Te Whariki and the promise of early childhood care and education grounded in a commitment to Te Tiriti o Waitangi
Ritchie, J. (2013). Te Whariki and the promise of early childhood care and education grounded in a commitment to Te Tiriti o Waitangi. In Nuttall, J. (Ed.), Weaving Te Whariki. Aotearoa New Zealand?s early childhood curriculum document in theory and practice (2nd ed., pp. 141-153). Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Copyright ? Joce Nuttall.

Reading 1.4 Ahakoa he iti: Early childhood pedagogies affirming of Maori children?s rights to their culture.
Rau, C., & Ritchie, J. (2011). Ahakoa he iti: Early childhood pedagogies affirming of Maori children?s rights to their culture.Early Education and Development, 22(5), 795-817. DOI: 10.1080/10409289.2011.596459
Copyright ? Taylor & Francis

Reading 1.5 Reo and matauranga Maori revitatlisation.
Hotere-Barnes, A, Bright, N., & Hutchings. J. (2014). Reo and matauranga. Set (1), 7-15.
Copyright ? NZCER

Reading 2.1 Introduction
Royal, T, C. (2003). Introduction. In The woven universe: Selected writings of Reverend Maori Marsden (pp. viii- xiv). Otaki, New Zealand: Te Wananga o Raukawa.
Copyright ? The estate of Rev.Maori Marsden.

Reading 2.2 The Purpose of Education: Perspectives Arising from Matauranga Maori
Royal, T. C. (2007). The purpose of education: Perspectives arising from Matauranga Maori (pp. 13?25). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.mkta.co.nz/assets/ educationpurposev.4.pdf
Copyright ? Ministry of Education.

Reading 2.3 Ka Mau Tonu te Whawhai
Walker R. (2004). Ka mau tonu te whawhai. In Ka whawhai tonu matou ? Struggle without end (pp. 344?366). Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin Books.
Copyright ? Ranginui Walker.

Reading 2.4 Titiro Mai, Titiro Atu ? Looking Near, Looking Far: Curriculum at Otaki Kindergarten
Te One, S., Barrett, S. & Podmore, V., with Booth, C., Tawhiti, L., & Broughton, J. (2010). Titiro mai, titiro atu ? Looking near, looking far: Curriculum at Otaki Kindergarten. In A. Meade (Ed.), Dispersing the waves: Innovation in early childhood education (pp. 41?48). Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER.
Copyright ? Ministry of Education.

Reading 2.5 Tangata Whenua, Tangata Tiriti: Institutional Marae
Penetito, W. (2010). Tangata whenua, tangata tiriti: Institutional marae. In What?s Maori about Maori education? (pp. 208?221). Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press.
Copyright ? Wally Penetito.

Reading 3.1 Pita Sharples
Diamond, P. (2003). Pita Sharples. In A fire in your belly: Maori leaders speak (pp 177?215). Wellington, New Zealand: Huia.
Copyright ? Paul Diamond.

Reading 3.2 Te Oranga o te Reo Maori
Te Puni Kokiri. (2006). Te Oranga o te Reo Maori. In The history of te reo (pp. 2?6). Wellington, New Zealand: Author.
Copyright ? The Crown.

Reading 3.3 Interpretations of Maori students achieving and enjoying educational success as Maori
Averill, R., Hindle, R., Hynds, A., Meyer, L., Penetito, W., Taiwhati, M., Hodis, F., & Fairclough, S. (2014). ?It means everything doesn?t it?? Interpretations of Maori students achieving and enjoying educational success as Maori. Set (2), 33-40.
Copyright ? NZCER

Reading 3.4 Discourses of bicultural teacher education in Aotearoa, New Zealand: A Pakeha early childhood teacher explores her subjectivities
Warren, A. (2013). Discourses of bicultural teacher education in Aotearoa, New Zealand: A Pakeha early childhood teacher explores her subjectivities. (Occasional Paper Series No. 1).Wellington, New Zealand: Te Tari Puna Ora o Aotearoa New Zealand Childcare Association.
Copyright ? Te Tari Puna Ora o Aotearoa.

Reading 3.5 The History of te Reo Maori
The history of te reo Maori. (2006). Retrieved June 30, 2011, from http://www.tetaurawhiri.govt.nz
Copyright ? Te Taura Whiri Te Reo Maori.

Reading 3.6 ?I?ve lost my voice?: A Look at the Role of Maori Language Competency and Accessibility in the Lives of Maori Tamariki in Compulsory Schooling
O?Regan, H. (2010). ?I?ve lost my voice?: A look at the role of Maori language competency and accessibility in the lives of Maori tamariki in compulsory schooling. In Kia tangi te titi ? Permission to speak (pp. 30?45). Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER
Copyright ? Paul Whitinui.

Reading 3.7 Closing the Gaps
Walker, R. (2004). Closing the gaps. In Ka whawhai tonu matou ? Struggle without end. (pp. 319?339). Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin.
Copyright ? Ranginui Walker.

Reading 3.8 The Critical Involvement of Fathers
Flavell, E. H., & Tamati, A. (2009). The critical involvement of fathers. In A. Meade (Ed.) Generating waves, Innovation in early childhood education (pp. 39?51). Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER Press.
Copyright ? Ministry of Education.

Reading 4.1 Introduction
Ngata, A. (2005). Introduction. In Nga Moteatea: The songs: Part 1 (P. te H. Jones, Trans, pp. xxxiii?xxxvii). Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press.
Copyright ? The Polynesian Society Inc.

Reading 4.2 Titiro, Moko! Whakarongo, Moko! Speaking with Aunty Ada
Haig, I. (1997). Titiro, Moko! Whakarongo, Moko! Speaking with Aunty Ada. In Mai i rangiatea: Maori wellbeing and development (pp. 39?45). Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press.
Copyright ? Iranui Te Aonohoriu Haig.

Reading 4.3 Rere Atu Taku Poi
Ka?ai, T. (2008). Rere atu taku poi. In Ngoingoi Pewhairangi: A remarkable life (pp. 82?99). Wellington, New Zealand: Huia.
Copyright ? Tania Ka?ai.

Reading 4.4 Researching Tiriti based practice
Sadikeen, R., & Ritchie, J. (2009). Researching Tiriti based practice. Early Education, 45, 6?10.
Copyright ? Early Education.

Reading 4.5 When You Educate a Woman, You Educate an Entire Generation
Mutu, L. (2006). When you educate a woman, you educate an entire generation. New Zealand Journal of Educational Leadership, 21(1), 85?86.
Copyright ? NZJEL.

Reading 4.6 Maori Identity Within Whanau: A Review of the Literature
Moeke-Pickering, T. (1996). Maori identity within whanau: A review of the literature. Unpublished master?s thesis, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Copyright ? Taima Moeke-Pickering

Reading 4.7 Strengthening Indigeneity Through Whakapapa and Maori Pedagogy
Williams, N. (2007). Strengthening indigeneity through whakapapa and and Maori pedagogy. Every Child, 13(2), 22?23.
Copyright ? Early Childhood Australia Inc.

Reading 4.8 Pae Matatu: Sustaining the Maori Estate
Durie, M. (2010). Pae matatu: Sustaining the Maori estate. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/ fms/manu-ao/documents/Pae%20Matatu%20-%20Sustaining%20the%20Maori%20 Estate.pdf
Copyright ? Massey University.

Reading 4.9 Growing Raukura
Soutar, B., & Te Whanau o Mana Tamariki. (2008). Growing raukura. In Dispersing waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education. Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER Press.
Copyright ? Ministry of Education

Reading 4.10 He Kapiti Hono, he Tatai Hono ? We Are Guided by Ancestral Teachings and Examples
Walker, R. (2009, June). He kapiti hono, he tatai hono ? We are guided by ancestral teachings and examples. Paper presented at Te Hinatore Conference, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Copyright ? Rita Walker.

131.

Relation in Asia and Pacific

Order Description

AIR243 2016 Workbook

The workbook is an opportunity to reflect critically on questions emerging from each weekly topic. It consists of a series of weekly questions that seek to engage you with the topics we are covering this trimester. You are expected to write a brief response to each question at the end of each week, demonstrating by the end of the trimester that you have critically engaged with the course materials, discussions and topics. Your responses should draw on the required readings, seminar notes, and in-class and online discussion.

Assessment Requirement
The workbook is worth 20% of your overall mark.

Your completed workbook must be submitted online through CloudDeakin by Friday 30 September, 11.59pm.

Brief overall comments on your responses will be provided via.

Marking Criteria
Each question is worth 5% of the total for this assessment task.

The length of each response should be about 150 words.

Each response will be graded based on how well it demonstrates:
a. Understanding of the issues raised by, or the concepts referred to, in each question
b. Evidence of critical reflection on the question

A marking rubric will be used as a further guide in assessment (available on).

Standard late penalties will apply (i.e. 5% of total available mark deducted per day late).

Week 1: The Asia-Pacific Region and its History

Of the three great historical transformations that Samuel Kim discusses, which one has left the deepest impact on the contemporary Asia?Pacific?

Week 2: International Relations Theory and the Asia-Pacific

How do the main three bodies of IR theory differ in their accounts of the Asia?Pacific’ contemporary history?

Week 3: Oceans Apart? The United States in the Region

Is the US ?pivot? or ?rebalancing? policy primarily a containment policy aimed at China?

Robert Sutter identifies four alternative futures for the US role in the Asia-Pacific, which one is the most likely?

Week 4: China, Taiwan and the Making of a Future Superpower

Has China’s ‘balancing act’ of both assuring its neighbours of its benign intentions and asserting its interests been successful in the post-Cold War period?

How has the democratisation of Taiwan affected its relations with China?

Week 5: Japan’s Identity Crises and Its Regional Role

To what extent does Japan?s imperialist history affect its relations with its neighbours?

Will China?s rise push Japan towards becoming a ?normal? state or will it retain its commitment to pacifism?

Week 6: India: Entry of a Belated Superpower?

How significant is India?s role in the Asia-Pacific likely to be in the first half of the 21st century?

What are the primary motivations for India?s ?Look East? (and more recent ?Act East?) policy?

Week 7: How do you solve a problem like Korea?

How have surrounding powers responded to North Korea’s development of nuclear weapons?

What are the strategic and security implications of Korean unification for Northeast Asia?

Week 8: Southeast Asian Regionalism

Is the ?ASEAN way? a help or a hindrance to Southeast Asian regional integration?

How effective has ASEAN been in managing territorial disputes in the South China Sea?

Week 9: The Asia-Pacific Economy and Globalization

Why are the economic disparities so great between societies in the Asia?Pacific region?

Which of the following pose the greatest challenge for Asia-Pacific governments: NGO activism, terrorism, or the internet?

Week 10: Australia in the Region

Given China?s rise and economic importance, should Australia seek to distance itself from the US alliance?

Is Indonesia more of a security partner or more of a security threat to Australia?

Week 11: A New Asian Order?

Are regional organizations likely to be decisive in shaping Asia-Pacific relations in the 21st century?

Which of the scenarios that Michael Yahuda suggested is more likely to emerge?

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