In less than one page (could be one paragraph), explain
a) the significance of p; and
b) the derivation of ? (lambda) and its relationship to hydrostatic and lithostatic stress in the upper 5
km of the earth.
c) Referring to the Hubbert and Rubey article, what is the significant of Figure 7, and why did the authors choose to illustrate their argument with this figure? One paragraph will be sufficient.
D) Using words, diagrams, and equations, develop the low-angle thrust fault paradox. Your answer need only be one very concise paragraph, in addition to any diagrams and equations that you utilize.
need C in different paragraph please
ROLE OF FLUID PRESSURE IN MECHANICS OF OVERTHRUST FAULTING
I. MECHANICS OF FLUID-FILLED POROUS SOLIDS AND ITS APPLICATION TO OVERTHRUST FAULTING
M KING HUBBERT and WILLIAM W RUBEY
Promise of resolving the paradox of overthrust faulting arises from a consideration of the influence of the pressure of interstitial fluids upon the effective stresses in rocks. If, in a porous rock filled with a fluid at pressure p, the normal and shear components of total stress across any given plane are S and T, then
are the corresponding components of the effective stress in the solid alone.
According to the Mohr-Coulomb law, slippage along any internal plane in the rock should occur when the shear stress along that plane reaches the critical value
where s is the normal stress across the plane of slippage, t0 the shear strength of the material when s is zero, and ? the angle of internal friction. However, once a fracture is started t 0 is eliminated, and further slippage results when
This can be further simplified by expressing p in terms of S by means of the equation
which, when introduced into equation (4), gives
From equations (4) and (6) it follows that, without changing the coefficient of friction tan ?, the critical value of the shearing stress can be made arbitrarily small simply by increasing the fluid pressure p. In a horizontal block the total weight per unit area Szz is jointly supported by the fluid pressure p and the residual solid stress szz; as p is increased, szz is correspondingly diminished until, as p approaches the limit Szz, or ? approaches 1, szz approaches 0.
For the case of gravitational sliding, on a subaerial slope of angle ?
where T is the total shear stress, and S the total normal stress on the inclined plane. However, from equations (2) and (6)
Then, equating the right-hand terms of equations (7) and (8), we obtain
which indicates that the angle of slope ? down which the block will slide can be made to approach 0 as ? approaches 1, corresponding to the approach of the fluid pressure p to the total normal stress S.
Hence, given sufficiently high fluid pressures, very much longer fault blocks could be pushed over a nearly horizontal surface, or blocks under their own weight could slide down very much gentler slopes than otherwise would be possible. That the requisite pressures actually do exist is attested by the increasing frequency with which pressures as great as 0.9Szz are being observed in deep oil wells in various parts of the world.
Our Service Charter
Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-FreeWe employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
Free RevisionsWe keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
Confidentiality / 100% No DisclosureWe make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
Money Back GuaranteeIf the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
24/7 Customer SupportWe have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.