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Virtual Water

This project is made up of two parts, an individual part and a swarm part.


1. Each person should find one source other than the sources below that contains data for virtual water trade in agricultural products.

2. Each person should find one source other than the sources below that contains data for virtual water trade in non-agricultural consumer products.

3. Each person should create an annotated bibliography entry for each source they found. Please see: Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/1/ . Your entry should be in MLA format and similar to the MLA sample shown on the Purdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/03/ .

4. Finally, each person should prepare an essay about virtual water trade in agriculture and how such trade saves water on a global scale. The essay can use information from any of the following sources:

A: H. Yang, L. Wang, K.C. Abbaspour, and A.J.B. Zehnder, ?Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade.? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 10, 443-454, 2006.

B: http://waterfootprint.org/en/water-footprint/national-water-footprint/virtual-water-trade/

C. https://www.gdrc.org/uem/footprints/water-footprint.html

D. http://waterfootprint.org/en/

E. http://waterfootprint.org/en/water-footprint/what-is-water-footprint/

F. http://waterfootprint.org/en/water-footprint/national-water-footprint/virtual-water-trade/

G. http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Report12.pdf This is a 248 page document. The part you should have is Virtual Water: An Introduction by A.Y. Hoekstra pp 13-23


Your paper must contain the following information in the following order:

Page 1: Annotated bibliography entry for source of data on virtual water trade in agricultural products.

Page 2: Annotated bibliography entry for source of data on virtual water trade in non-agricultural consumer products.

Pages 3-6 (4 pages maximum/3 pages minimum): You are to write an essay on the water savings associated with virtual water trade in agriculture. As part of your discussion you should discuss the possible effect of a shift to local food production on global water savings.

Page 7: On the page following the last page of the essay, a references page. You should have in-text citations throughout the essay that point to the references on the references page. Any material used in the paper that was taken from someone else?s work must be cited in the text of the paper and each citation must point to a reference on the references page. Material copied word-for-word must also be placed in quotation marks. The references should be alphabetized. The paper should have page numbers.

Page 8: Page 8 should contain one value for virtual water in an agricultural product together with the reference to the source of this value and one value for virtual water in a non-agricultural consumer product together with the reference to the source of this value.

Note: The paper (pages 1-8) should be 12 point font/double-spaced throughout (no mixed fonts or spacing).


Each student in a section (A or V) should submit the information on page 8 of their paper to the swarm database. Each section should create one deliverable constructed from this data.

The swarm deliverable is graded on its visual quality, on its organization and on the amount of material (virtual water values and references) contained in it. All students who submit data to the swarm part of the swarm project will receive the same grade. Those students who don?t submit data will not receive a grade.

Note: no student information should be included in the swarm deliverable.

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