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Week 8 Discussion Planning for Data Collection

Week 8: Data Collection
The clinic in which you work has used the same brand of hand soap and sanitizer for the past 10 years. Just recently, a salesperson called the office manager at the clinic and offered a compelling price on a new brand of soaps. The new soap meets industry standards; however, the office
manager is concerned that the reduced cost will also mean an inferior product. As nurses must frequently wash their hands throughout the day, having high-quality soap is very important. The office manager has asked you to determine if the new brand of soap is of a lesser quality than the soap currently used. As you do not want to make this determination alone, you decide to get the other nurses involved in the evaluation process. How would you proceed? Would you have everyone try the new product or just selected individuals? How long will they use it? How will they provide feedback? Will you have a survey or face-to-face interviews? These are all types of questions that a researcher faces when he or she begins to plan for data collection.

This week, you consider the process of data collection for both quantitative and qualitative research. You will examine the various approaches to data collection, how you can test the reliability and validity of your data, and the ethical considerations involved with collecting data.
Learning Objectives
Students will:
Evaluate data collection methods
Photo Credit: [IAN HOOTON]/[Science Photo Library]/Getty Images
Learning Resources
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
Required Readings
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Chapter 12, “Sampling in Quantitative Research”
This chapter introduces key concepts concerning sampling in quantitative research. This includes such concepts as a description of populations, different types of sampling and their uses, and how to determine a manageable, yet sufficient number to be included in a sample. The chapter also includes suggestions for implementing a sampling plan.

Chapter 13, “Data Collection in Quantitative Research”
Once a sampling design is complete, the next step is to collect the data, and this is the focus of Chapter 13. The chapter describes how to develop a data collection plan, and provides information about the different types of instruments that can be used, such as structured observation and bio physiologic measures.

Chapter 22, “Sampling in Qualitative Research”
The focus of this chapter is on the sampling process in qualitative research. The chapter describes the different types of sampling and when they are commonly used. Sampling techniques in the three main qualitative traditions (ethnography, phenomenological studies, and grounded theory studies) are highlighted.

Chapter 23, “Data Collection in Qualitative Research”
This chapter examines the process of data collection in qualitative research as well as key issues surrounding data collection. This includes such methods as self-reporting, surveys, interviews, and personal journal keeping. The chapter also highlights important considerations when utilizing unstructured observations to gather data and how to record field notes.
Keough, V. A., & Tanabe, P. (2011). Survey research: An effective design for conducting nursing research. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 1(4), 37–44. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier Science & Technology Journals. Used with permission of Elsevier Science & Technology Journals via the Copyright Clearance Center.

This text emphasizes the advantages of survey research. The authors describe the nuances of survey research projects, including their design, methods, analysis, and limitations.
Walden University. (n.d.a.). Paper templates. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm

This resource provides you access to the School of Nursing Sample Paper, which will serve as a template for formatting your papers.
Laureate Education (Producer). (2012b). Data collection. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 4 minutes.

Dr. Kristen Mauk discusses how she collected data for her DNP project in this video. She describes the details of her pre- and post-tests used to track nurses’ knowledge in a rehabilitation unit.

Accessible player
Optional Resources
Krainovich-Miller, B., Haber, J., Yost, J., & Jacobs, S. (2009). Evidence-based practice challenge: teaching critical appraisal of systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines to graduate students. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(4), 186–195.

This text emphasizes the advantages of survey research. The authors describe the nuances of survey research projects, including their design, methods, analysis, and limitations.
Horsley, T., Hyde, C., Santesso, N., Parkes, J., Milne, R., & Stewart, R. (2011). Teaching critical appraisal skills in healthcare settings. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online), 11, Art. No.: CD001270.
Melnyk, B., Fineout-Overholt, E., & Mays, M. (2009). The evidence-based practice beliefs and implementation scales: Psychometric properties of two new instruments. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 6(1), 49.
Fawcett, J., & Garity, J. (2009). Evaluating research for evidence-based nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. David Company.
Chapter 9, “Evaluation of Research Instruments and Experimental Conditions”
Discussion: Planning for Data Collection
Data collection is an important part of both quantitative and qualitative research. Although the actual approach to gathering information may vary, for either research design, researchers need to plan in advance how the data will be gathered, reported, and stored, and they need to ensure that their methods are both reliable and valid. As nurses review research when considering a new evidence-based practice, it is important to be familiar with sound collection practices in order to ascertain the credibility of the data presented.
Consider the following scenario:
Nurses and other health care professionals are often interested in assessing patient satisfaction with health care services. Imagine that you are a nurse working in a suburban primary care setting that serves 10,000 patients annually. Your organization is very interested in understanding the patient’s point of view to help determine areas of care that can be improved. With this focus in mind, consider how you would create a survey to assess patient satisfaction with the services your organization provides. You may wish to consider variables such as the ease of accessing care, patient wait time, friendliness of the staff, or the likelihood that a patient would recommend your organization to others.
For this Discussion, you generate questions and an overall plan for data collection that would be appropriate for a patient satisfaction survey in relation to the above scenario.
To prepare:
Consider the guidelines for generating questions presented in this week’s Learning Resources.
Review the scenario and formulate at least five questions that you could use to evaluate patient satisfaction.
Reflect on the different methods or instruments that can be used for gathering data described in Chapter 13 and Chapter 23 of the course text.
Which methods or instruments would work well for the scenario? Determine an appropriate sample size for the scenario.
By Day 3
Post the questions that you created for gathering information about patient satisfaction based on the above scenario. Explain which method or instrument you would use to gather data. Describe the sample size appropriate for the population and how you would select participants. Provide a rationale for your choices, and explain how you can ensure a high standard of reliability and validity.

Data Collection
Program Transcript
NARRATOR: There are many different methods of data collection available to
nurse researchers. Whether they are conducting a quantitative, qualitative, or
mixed methods study. In this video, Dr. Kristen Mauk describes the data
collection methods that she used for her DNP project. The nurses who
participated in Dr. Mauk’s project completed self-study modules that provided
educational information on nursing practice in a rehabilitation setting.
Because of this, Dr. Mauk used pre- and post-tests to gather information about
the nurses’ knowledge before and after completing each module. The pre- and
post-test method is just one example of the many options available for nurse
researchers for collecting research data.
KRISTEN HAUK: So they wanted to use self-study modules. And they didn’t want
to do it on the computer. So I made up self-study notebooks that had articles,
evidence-based practice, PowerPoint slides of learning objectives for them. And
before they would do each module of the 15 topics that we chose, they would go
take a pre-test online on the computer. And they could do this all that work in
their down time.
You would take a 10 question pre-test that had already been formulated and
validated by the ARN. And then study the module, and then take the same test
as the post-test. And that was all recorded for them. And then we just kept track
of what were their results ahead of time. Their pre-knowledge, and then the
education, and then their post-knowledge.
And in the end, when we evaluated our outcomes, we did find on 14 of the 15
competencies they had a significant improvement in their knowledge about
rehab. I didn’t on purpose gather anecdotal data, but in my meetings with the
nurse manager and the staff, they offered that. Which was just a nice aside
saying how much they didn’t realize that they needed to know more on a certain
© 2013 Laureate Education, Inc. 1

Data Collection
And there were certain results that I was surprised at when I looked at what
knowledge they had mastered ahead of time. There were topics like dysphagia
which is difficulty swallowing, that normally a generalist nurse wouldn’t have
mastered, but on this particular unit, they had some really great speech
therapists who had already educated the staff. So their original scores on
dysphagia were very high. Which to me was something I didn’t expect.
But I could explain them once the staff told me, oh yeah we have speech
therapists and they do education with us all the time. So we know about that. So
that was the only one that wasn’t a big significant difference because they scored
so high on it the first time.
The anecdotal notes are very fun. Because after we did the project, they started
really getting excited about rehab nursing. And I think when you enter a new
specialty, whether it’s rehab or something else, you may think, well I’m a nurse
with 20 years of experience, I know how to do this. But in any specialty, and
rehab is one of them, there’s a core body of knowledge.
Whether you were an othro nurse, or a rehab nurse, or a peds nurse, I couldn’t,
as a gero nurse, go and be a peds nurse without mastering that body of
knowledge if I want to give good patient care. So I think once they saw, oh here
is a body of knowledge, there is unique knowledge to rehab, I think they got
really excited about it. That there was a lot to learn and maybe more than they
thought, and there were resources, and this is interesting, and it can improve
how we care for our patients which is always the primary goal.
And I was told that they started to form a study group to think about getting
certified in rehab. Which the literature shows is the big difference in knowledge, a
certification. So that was my ultimate goal, although that wasn’t– we were taking
baby steps. So that wasn’t ultimately what I measured. But, I was really happy to
hear that some of them were then encouraged to go on further with knowledge in
rehab and get that certification.


bonus question

Are the six traditional values mostly the same in America today?what factors affect them now, compared to in the past?



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