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What are the three basic steps in managing organizational change?

QUESTIONS
1. What are the three basic steps in managing organizational
change?
2. What are the cultural issues of which developers
should be aware?
3. What are the major components of a migration plan?
4. Compare and contrast direct conversion and parallel
conversion.
5. Compare and contrast pilot conversion, phased conversion,
and simultaneous conversion.
6. Compare and contrast modular conversion and
whole-system conversion.
7. Explain the trade-offs among selecting between the
types of conversion in questions 4, 5, and 6.
8. What are the three key roles in any change management
initiative?
9. Why do people resist change? Explain the basic model
for understanding why people accept or resist change.
10. What are the three major elements of management
policies that must be considered when implementing a
new system?
11. Compare and contrast an information change management
strategy with a political change management
strategy. Is one better than the other?
12. Explain the three categories of adopters you are likely
to encounter in any change management initiative.
13. How should you decide what items to include in your
training plan?
14. Compare and contrast three basic approaches to training.
15. What is the role of the operations group in system
development?
16. Compare and contrast two major ways of providing
system support.
17. How is a problem report different from a change
request?
18. What are the major sources of change requests?
19. Why is project assessment important?
20. How is project team review different from system review?
21. What do you think are three common mistakes that
novice analysts make in migrating from the as-is to the
to-be system?
22. Some experts argue that change management is more
important than any other part of system development.
Do you agree or not? Explain.
23. In our experience, change management planning often
receives less attention than conversion planning. Why
do you think this happens?
Questions 571
c13InstallationAndOperations 11/28/11 11:12 AM Page 571
572 Chapter 13 Installation and Operations
EXERCISES
A. Suppose you are installing a new accounting package
in your small business. What conversion strategy
would you use? Develop a conversion plan (i.e., technical
aspects only).
B. Suppose you are installing a new room reservation system
for your university that tracks which courses are
assigned to which rooms. Assume that all the rooms in
each building are ?owned? by one college or department
and only one person in that college or department
has permission to assign them. What conversion
strategy would you use? Develop a conversion plan
(i.e., technical aspects only).
C. Suppose you are installing a new payroll system in a
very large multinational corporation. What conversion
strategy would you use? Develop a conversion
plan (i.e., technical aspects only).
D. Consider a major change you have experienced in your
life (e.g., taking a new job, starting a new school). Prepare
a cost?benefit analysis of the change in terms of
both the change and the transition to the change.
E. Suppose you are the project manager for a new library
system for your university. The system will improve
the way students, faculty, and staff can search for
books by enabling them to search over the Web, rather
than using only the current text-based system available
on the computer terminals in the library. Prepare a
cost?benefit analysis of the change in terms of both
the change and the transition to the change for the
major stakeholders.
F. Prepare a plan to motivate the adoption of the system
in exercise E.
G. Prepare a training plan that includes both what you
would train and how the training would be delivered
for the system in exercise E.
H. Suppose you are leading the installation of a new DSS
to help admissions officers manage the admissions
process at your university. Develop a change management
plan (i.e., organizational aspects only).
I. Suppose you are the project leader for the development
of a new Web-based course registration system for your
university that replaces an old system in which students
had to go to the coliseum at certain times and stand in
line to get permission slips for each course they wanted
to take. Develop a migration plan (including both technical
conversion and change management).
J. Suppose you are the project leader for the development
of a new airline reservation system that will be used by
the airline?s in-house reservation agents. The system
will replace the current command-driven system
designed in the 1970s that uses terminals. The new
system uses PCs with a Web-based interface. Develop a
migration plan (including both conversion and change
management) for your telephone operators.
K. Develop a migration plan (including both conversion
and change management) for the independent travel
agencies who use the airline reservation system
described in exercise J.
L. For the A Real Estate Inc problem in Chapters 4
through 12:
1. Prepare a plan to motivate adoption of the system.
2. Prepare a training plan that includes both what you
would train and how the training would be delivered.
3. Prepare a change management plan.
4. Develop a migration plan.
M. For the A Video Store problem in Chapters 4 through 12:
1. Prepare a plan to motivate adoption of the system.
2. Prepare a training plan that includes both what you
would train and how the training would be
delivered.
3. Prepare a change management plan.
4. Develop a migration plan.
N. For the gym problem in Chapters 4 through 12:
1. Prepare a plan to motivate adoption of the system.
2. Prepare a training plan that includes both what you
would train and how the training would be delivered.
3. Prepare a change management plan.
4. Develop a migration plan.
O. For the Picnics R Us problem in Chapters 4 through 12:
1. Prepare a plan to motivate adoption of the system.
2. Prepare a training plan that includes both what you
would train and how the training would be delivered.
3. Prepare a change management plan.
4. Develop a migration plan.
P. For Of-the-Month Club problem in Chapters 4
through 12:
1. Prepare a plan to motivate adoption of the system.
2. Prepare a training plan that includes both what
you would train and how the training would be
delivered.
3. Prepare a change management plan.
4. Develop a migration plan.
c13InstallationAndOperations 11/10/11 8:28 AM Page 572
MINICASES
1. Nancy is the IS department head at MOTO Inc., a
human resources management firm. The IS staff at
MOTO Inc. completed work on a new client management
software system about a month ago. Nancy was
impressed with the performance of her staff on this
project because the firm had not previously undertaken
a project of this scale in-house. One of Nancy?s
weekly tasks is to evaluate and prioritize the change
requests that have come in for the various applications
used by the firm.
Right now, Nancy has five change requests for the
client system on her desk. One request is from a system
user who would like some formatting changes made to
a daily report produced by the system. Another request
is from a user who would like the sequence of menu
options changed on one of the system menus to more
closely reflect the frequency of use for those options. A
third request came in from the billing department.
This department performs billing through a billing
software package. A major upgrade of this software is
being planned, and the interface between the client
system and the bill system need to be changed to
accommodate the new software?s data structures. The
fourth request seems to be a system bug that occurs
whenever a client cancels a contract (a rare occurrence,
fortunately). The last request came from Susan,
the company president. This request confirms the
rumor that MOTO Inc. is about to acquire another
new business. The new business specializes in the temporary
placement of skilled professional and scientific
employees and represents a new business area for
MOTO Inc. The client management software system
will need to be modified to incorporate the special
client arrangements that are associated with the
acquired firm.
How do you recommend that Nancy prioritize
these change requests for the client/management
system?
2. Sky View Aerial Photography offers a wide range of
aerial photographic, video, and infrared imaging services.
The company has grown from its early days of
snapping pictures of client houses to its current status
as a full-service aerial image specialist. Sky View now
maintains numerous contracts with various governmental
agencies for aerial mapping and surveying
work. Sky View has its offices at the airport, where it
keeps its fleet of specially equipped aircraft. Sky View
contracts with several freelance pilots and photographers
for some of its aerial work and also employs
several full-time pilots and photographers.
The owners of Sky View Aerial Photography
recently contracted with a systems development
consulting firm to develop a new information system
for the business. As the number of contracts, aircraft,
flights, pilots, and photographers increased, the
company experienced difficulty keeping accurate
records of its business activity and the utilization of its
fleet of aircraft. The new system will require all pilots
and photographers to swipe an ID badge through a
reader at the beginning and conclusion of each photo
flight, along with recording information about the aircraft
used and the client served on that flight. These
records are to be reconciled against the actual aircraft
utilization logs maintained and recorded by the
hangar personnel.
The office staff was eagerly awaiting the installation
of the new system. Their general attitude was that the
system would reduce the number of problems and
errors that they encountered and would make their
work easier. The pilots, photographers, and hangar
staff were less enthusiastic, being unaccustomed to
having their activities monitored in this way.
a. Discuss the factors that might inhibit the acceptance
of this new system by the pilots, photographers, and
hangar staff.
b. Discuss how an informational strategy could be
used to motivate adoption of the new system at Sky
View Aerial Photography.
c. Discuss how a political strategy could be used to
motivate adoption of the new system at Sky View
Aerial Photography.
3. For the Holiday Travel Vehicles problem described in
Chapters 5 through 12:
a. Prepare a plan to motivate adoption of the system.
b. Prepare a training plan that includes both what you
would train and how the training would be delivered.
c. Prepare a change management plan.
d. Develop a migration plan.
4. For the Professional and Scientific Staff Management
problem described in Chapters 4, and 6 through 11:
a. Prepare a plan to motivate adoption of the system.
b. Prepare a training plan that includes both what you
would train and how the training would be delivered.
c. Prepare a change management plan.
d. Develop a migration plan.

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