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What detennines whether an atom with interac… Show more El

What detennines whether an atom with interac… Show more Electron arrangement and the chemical propties of atoms What detennines whether an atom with interact with other atoms? Which subatomic particle is directly involved-in the chemical activity of an atom? o Where are electrons found? How does an electron’s location affect its energy? How many electrons must an atom have inits outermost shell to be stable? What is the octet rule? o How does the number of electrons in an electron’s outer shell affect how many chemical bonds it can form? What is a chemical bond? o What is transferred or shared in a chemical bond? Ionic bonds oHow are they formed? When an atom loses electron(s), what is formed? When an atom gains electron(s), what is formed? How does transfer of electrons result in the formation of a molecule and ionic bond? Covalent bonds oHow are they formed? What_ is the diffo1xncc between a single, double, and triple covalent bond? o What determmes I1ow many covalent bonds an atom can form? o What are polar molecules? Hydrogen bonds oHow are they formed? Why are they NOT technically chemical bonds? Do they result inthe formation oi new molecule or compound? Chemical reactions ‘w’hat is a chemical reaction? Given the equation for a chemical reaction, be able to: Identify the reactant(s) Identify the product(s) Determine the number of reactant molecules Determine the number of product molecules Determine the number of atoms going in to the reaction Determine the number of atoms resulting from the reaction Why is it that: Chemical reactions can rearrange matter Chemical reactions do not create nor destroy matter Water and life Why/how is water essential to life (as we currently know it)? Living organism use water as the medium for the chemical reaction necessary to substain life. o What are the three physical states of water? Solid, Liquid and Gas Water’s Life-Supporting Properties One Hydrogen gas and two oxygen For each of the following properties of water, be able to explain the property and how/why it supports life: Cohesion Temperature moderation Frozen water Why does it float? Why is this important? How/ why does salt change the boiling and freezing point of water? Water as a solvent of lifeBe able to describe and identify the following: Solution Solvent Solute Why /how is water such an excellent solvent What is an aqueous solution? Acids, Bases, and pHWhat is an acid? What does it release in an aqueous solution? o What is a base? What does it release in an aqueous solution? How does this reduce the number of hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution? o What is a salt? What does it release in an aqueous solution? Why DOESN’T a salt change the pH of an aqueous solution?What is the pH scale? What does it measure? What is the pH range of acidic solutions? What is the pH of neutral solutions? What is the pH range of basic solutions? On the pH scale, what is the relationship between hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide ions (OR) and pH value? What is a buffer? How d oes 1t function to resist changes inpH? what happens if/when our pH gets too low? What is acidosis? What happens if/when our pH gets too high? What is alkalosis? What is a neutralization reaction? In general, what are the reactants inthis kind of reaction? Ingeneral, what are the products in this kind of reaction? ‘What is a salt? . • Why does it NOT change the pH of a solution? O How do increased levels of atmospheric C02 impact ecosystems? C02 combines with water to form carbonic acid What are the results of increased C02 on: Coral reefs Land ecosystems Buildings and statues Evolution Connection -The search for extraterrestrial life Why is availability of water essential to life like found on Earth? Why is it possible that life exists or has existed on Mars? What properties would an extraterrestrial need to have in order to be considered livin g.;:? Chapter 3 -The Molecules of Life Biology and society -got lactose? What is lactose? What is lactose intolerance? What role do lactase, the small intestine, and the large intestine have to do with lactose digestion? What can lactose intolerant individuals do to comfortably consume dairy products? o Why can lactose intolerance “run” in families? Why is it that if both parents are lactose intolerant, there’s an excellent chance their chi.ldrn also be lactose intolerant? Organic compounds o What is an organic compound? What is the importance of carbon for living organisms? How is carbon a versatile atom? What are the different shapes organic molecules can have? How many bonds must a carbon atom form to be stable? What is a “carbon skeleton”? What are hydrocarbons? How can organic molecules be used for fuel? Within the molecule, what is broken to make energy available to either mechanical devices or cells? enustry characteristics of an organic molecules What determine the uruque characteristics of an organic molecule? What are functional grups? the molecule’s function? . . How are these portant to olecule participates in chenucal How are these unportant to how the m reactions? Giant molecules from smaller building blocks o What are macromolecules? l cu es;i ;i What are the 3 categories of biologically important macromo e .cally . mo ecu es b t NOT macromo ecu e . lipids b1olog1 rmportant 1 1 u What is a polymer? How are they form.ed? . ;i What is the role of monomers m polymer formatlon. Be able to describe the process of dehydrati·on synthes1·s (a1so calied condensation) reactions, including the role of specific enzymes ;i Why is it important that biologically important molecules can also be broken down. Be able to describe the process of hydrolysis reactions, including the role of specific enzymes Large biologic molecules o What are the four categories of large biological molecules? CarbohydratesIn general, how can you tell a molecule is a carbohydrate? Hint: what letters does its name end with? What is the ratio of C:H:0 in mono- and di- saccharides? Examples of small and large carbohydrates o How are they used in animals? . Inplants? What are the monomer s of carbohydrates?What is the definition, difference between, examples and functions of:Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides What is an isomer? How is high fructose corn syrup made? Can our bodies tell the difference between sucrose and high fru.ctose corn syrup? ,vl1y does high fructose corn syrup get such a “bad repu tation”? Specific e::-amples, structure, function of a few polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose Where found, structure, function o Role of glycogen in animals Role of glucagon in maintaining blood glucose levels o Role of starch in plants Role of cellulose in plants Why/how is cellulose the most abundant organic compound on Earth? 4 Hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic O Be able to explain what each term means . Which large biologic molecules are hydrophobic, which are hydrophilic O O Explam the difference between and give an example of a: • Suspension • Emulsion • Lipids o . . . b NOT cromolecules or es, y are they b1olog1cally unportant molecu1 ut ma Wh polymers? Fats• Most fats are triglycerides -what is a triglyceride? J-loW is it formed? d . . 1 ;> What type of cell stores triglyceri es 111 anuna s. Fatty• acWid hsatrtuicstuthree difference (from a molecular standpoint) between sauu:ated and unsaturated fatty acids? . . . . Given the molecular structure of a fatty acid, be able to detetffillle 1f 1l 1S saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated Atherosclerosis What is it? What causes it? What can happen if part of an atherosclerotic plaque breaks free? What can happen if a blood clot forms, adheres to a plaque? Explain the basics of coronary artery bypass graft surgical procedure ( and how/why it is performed . Types of fatsSaturated fats – examples, characteristics How does a diet high in saturated fats result in atherosclerosis? Be able to describe how/why atherosclerosis results in blockage of blood vessels Unsaturated fats – examples, characteristics • How docs a di.et rich in unsaturated fats reduce the risk 0f d 1 · athcroscbusis? Hydrogenation – what is it? eve opmg How does this result in formation of a trans fat? What are the benefits of hydrogenation? at are the health risks of hydrogenation? Gtraivnesnfatht e molecular structure, be able to determm. e . f a fatty aci.d 1.s a 5 O h lesterol -what does this mean? Steroids are hormones derived from c How does placement of functional groups a hormone? ffect the action of a steroid What are anabolic steroids? . al bod function and treatment How are they beneficial (both lllnorm y of disease)? ? Wh are they Why/how do they boost athletic performance. y banned? s · xample of where to find For each of the major types of proteins, be able to give an e them and their basic function: Structural, storage, contractile, transport, enzymes o What are·the monomers of proteins? How many are there? From the central carbon atom of its backbone, what are the three attachment groups? For each attachment group, what is it and what does it do? What is significant about the side group (also called “R” group)? What are “essential” amino acids? How do we obtain them? Why do vegetarians, especially vegans, need to carefully monitor their diet for essential amino acids? Proteins as polymers How are polypeptides assembled? Vhere are they assembled? Be able to describe the type of bond formed and the structure of the molecule ineach stage of protein assembly:Primary structure Peptide bond formation String of amino acids Why is the sequence of amino acids so important to normal’ protein function? The case of sickle cell disease Seconda:tv, structure X.ilrnt i·:, the alpha helix? ii! Role of hydrogen bonds “C·’hat is the pleated sheet? III Role of hydrogen bonds Tertiary structure o What is bonding/interacting to form the final three- dimensional protein structure? Quaternary structure What interacts to form the quaternary structure? Do all proteins have a quaternary structure? / o Protein h s ape Wh . Y ls protet.·n h vn s ape · • w nat deter,,..,; so l!nportant::> Vn ··=ies a · · w nat is denatu . protein’s shape? Whe . ration and wh d . n protet.n shape . . y oes it affect protein function? D· is trusfolded- O Prions iseases associated ‘th . W1 nusfolded proteins : What is a prion? Examples f di What . tho seases caused by prions How is e only me h . th /wh d . c arusm at destroys prions? Nucleic acids o Fun · Y O prions cause brain damage? ctions of nucleic acids O How are the d O Ex Y use to assemble proteins? amples of nucleic acids- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) O Be able to explain the process of protein assembly Gene (section of DNA) Formation of RNA based on DNA template RNA used to bring amino acids together in specific sequence Monomers of nucleic acids What is a nucleotide? What does it consist of? Do nucleotides on(y function as monomers of nucleic acids? DNA and its nucleotides What is the only difference between DNA nucleotides? What are the nitrogenous bases of DNA nucleotides? How are DNA nucleotides assembled to form a DNA molecule? What type of chemical bond joins nucleotides? What is the shape of a DNA molecule? How are the two strands of DNA held together? W’hat type of chemical bond joins the complimentary bases? What determines tr.e complimentary bases? RNA and its nucleotides How do RNA nucleotides differ from DNA nucleotides? How does an RNA molecule differ from a DNA molecule? What determines the nucleotide sequence of an RNA molecule? Evolution connection – the evolution of lactose intolerance in humans What is the percentage of lactose intolerance in different genetic backgrounds? Why are the percentages of lactose intolerance different between genetic backgrounds? What is the relationship between lactose intolerance and genetics? Hint: what breaks down lactose? Which category of biologically important molecules does it belong in? what determines the formation of that molecule? Chapter 3 – A Tour of the Cell Biology and society – Antibiotics: Drugs that Target Bacterial Cells o What was the first antibiotic? How was it discovered? How have antibiotics increased general health? o How do antibiotics work? Can antibiotics be used to treat viral infections? Why or why not? All organisms consist of at least one cellUnicellular – single-celled organism Prokaryotes, some protists, some fungi Multicellular/ multicelled – consist of multiple cells Animals, plants, some protists, some fungi • Microscopes -«windows on the world of cells” F?r each of the following microscopes , be able to: describe how it obtains an image (mliagghnt iofircealteiocntrons) , type of image it produces (2 or 3 dimensions), relative power of Light/ compound light Scanning electron microscope • . • Transmission electron microscope Microscope terminology O Be able to define, describe the difference between: Magnification • Development of Cell Theory o How was it developed? o What does it state? Categories of cellsProkaryotic cells Examples of organisms that have prokaryotic cells Characteristics of prokaryotic cells o Eukaryotic cells Examples of organisms that have eukaryotic cells Characteristics of eukaryotic cells What are organelles? See Fig. 1.4,page 7 of textfor quick review of the two kinds of cells o Which type of cell app. arsfirst in the f ossil record? Common to all cells -whether eukaryoti c or prokaryoticGiven the following, explain their function and why they are needed for all cells: Plasma/ cell membrane Cytosol Chromosome(s) Ribosomes Plant vs. Animal cells What do plant cells contain that animal cells lack? o What do animal cells contain that plant cells lack? o See Fig. 4.5 – also, why are these ”idealized” cells? / < >structure/ o Where are tn b < >em anes found in a cell?ro aryottc cell? < >cell? The phospholipidbilayer What is a phospholipid? Whee i.s the hydrophobic region? What does it consist of? What is the s1gruficance of this? Where is the hydrophilic region?What does it consist of? What is . the significance of this? The fhud tnosaicmodel O What does “fluid mosaic” mean? O What types of molecules can be found as part of this fluid mosaic? < >surfacesO This is the outermost boundary of the cell < > Cell wall is outermost boundary What makes up the cell wall? < >. How do plan t cells connect/communicate/transfermaterials withadjacent cells? I 0 Animal cells Cell membrane is outermost boundary What is extracellular matrixandwhy/how is it important?Whatarethe I roles/responsibilities of extracellular matrix? How is it formed? < >withadjacen t cells? Animal cell junctions – for each of the following, be a·ble to describe its composition, characteristics, and 2-3 locations where it can be found: < >es Gap junc tions < >junc tionsLecture Exam II material is any and all material covered in lecture from Monday Fcbmmy 15 through Monday March 7. • Show less

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